Tim Brunson DCH

Welcome to The International Hypnosis Research Institute Web site. Our intention is to support and promote the further worldwide integration of comprehensive evidence-based research and clinical hypnotherapy with mainstream mental health, medicine, and coaching. We do so by disseminating, supporting, and conducting research, providing professional level education, advocating increased level of practitioner competency, and supporting the viability and success of clinical practitioners. Although currently over 80% of our membership is comprised of mental health practitioners, we fully recognize the role, support, involvement, and needs of those in the medical and coaching fields. This site is not intended as a source of medical or psychological advice. Tim Brunson, PhD

Hearing gestures, seeing music: vision influences perceived tone duration.



Percussionists inadvertently use visual information to strategically manipulate audience perception of note duration. Videos of long (L) and short (S) notes performed by a world-renowned percussionist were separated into visual (Lv, Sv) and auditory (La, Sa) components. Visual components contained only the gesture used to perform the note, auditory components the acoustic note itself. Audio and visual components were then crossed to create realistic musical stimuli. Participants were informed of the mismatch, and asked to rate note duration of these audio-visual pairs based on sound alone. Ratings varied based on visual (Lv versus Sv), but not auditory (La versus Sa) components. Therefore while longer gestures do not make longer notes, longer gestures make longer sounding notes through the integration of sensory information. This finding contradicts previous research showing that audition dominates temporal tasks such as duration judgment.

Perception. 2007;36(6):888-97. Schutz M, Lipscomb S. School of Music, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA. schutz@virginia.edu

The Mozart effect: evidence for the arousal hypothesis.



This study investigated the effect of music listening for performance on a 25-question portion of the analytical section of the Graduate Record Exam by 72 undergraduate students (M age 21.9 yr.). Five levels of an auditory condition were based on Mozart Piano Sonata No. 3 (K. 281), Movement I (Allegro); a rhythm excerpt; a melody excerpt; traffic sounds; and silence. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the stimuli. After a 5-min., 43-sec. (length of the first Allegro movement) listening period, participants answered the questions. Analysis indicated participants achieved significantly higher mean scores after all auditory conditions than those in the silent condition. No statistically significant pairwise mean difference appeared between scores for the auditory conditions. Findings were interpreted in terms of an arousal framework, suggesting the higher means in all auditory conditions may reflect immediate exposure to auditory stimuli.

Percept Mot Skills. 2008 Oct;107(2):396-402. Roth EA, Smith KH. Western Michigan University, Neurologic Music Therapy, 1903 W. Michigan Avenue, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA. edward.roth@wmich.edu

Rhythm and beat perception in motor areas of the brain.



When we listen to rhythm, we often move spontaneously to the beat. This movement may result from processing of the beat by motor areas. Previous studies have shown that several motor areas respond when attending to rhythms. Here we investigate whether specific motor regions respond to beat in rhythm. We predicted that the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area (SMA) would respond in the presence of a regular beat. To establish what rhythm properties induce a beat, we asked subjects to reproduce different types of rhythmic sequences. Improved reproduction was observed for one rhythm type, which had integer ratio relationships between its intervals and regular perceptual accents. A subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging study found that these rhythms also elicited higher activity in the basal ganglia and SMA. This finding was consistent across different levels of musical training, although musicians showed activation increases unrelated to rhythm type in the premotor cortex, cerebellum, and SMAs (pre-SMA and SMA). We conclude that, in addition to their role in movement production, the basal ganglia and SMAs may mediate beat perception.

J Cogn Neurosci. 2007 May;19(5):893-906. Grahn JA, Brett M. MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK. Jessica.grahn@mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk

Shared Neural Resources between Music and Language Indicate Semantic Processing



Harmonic tension-resolution patterns have long been hypothesized to be meaningful to listeners familiar with Western music. Even though it has been shown that specifically chosen musical pieces can prime meaningful concepts, the empirical evidence in favor of such a highly specific semantic pathway has been lacking. Here we show that 2 event-related potentials in response to harmonic expectancy violations, the early right anterior negativity (ERAN) and the N500, could be systematically modulated by simultaneously presented language material containing either a syntactic or a semantic violation. Whereas the ERAN was reduced only when presented concurrently with a syntactic language violation and not with a semantic language violation, this pattern was reversed for the N500. This is the first piece of evidence showing that tension- resolution patterns represent a route to meaning in music.

Cereb Cortex. 2007 Sep 5 Steinbeis N, Koelsch S. Junior Research Group "Neurocognition of Music" Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Neural correlates underlying perception of tonality-related emotional contents.



Using an event-related functional MRI technique, we examined the blood oxygen level-dependent responses of normal participants to auditory stimuli that consisted of four triads to explore the neural correlates for judging mode-related emotional contents in tonal music. Three categories of stimuli, MAJOR, MINOR and NEUTRAL were prepared. MAJOR and MINOR stimuli suggest C major and c minor, respectively. NEUTRAL stimuli were controls. The task was to judge the categories. Contrasts MAJOR-NEUTRAL and MINOR-NEUTRAL showed significant activation in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, medial thalamus, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. It is suggested that the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and medial thalamus are involved in judging the mode, whereas the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex was related to conflicts in the participant's mind.

Neuroreport. 2007 Oct 29;18(16):1651-5. Mizuno T, Sugishita M. Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine bDepartment of Neurology, International University of Health and Welfare Mita Hospital, Mita, Tokyo, Japan cInstitute of Brain and Blood Vessels, 366 Otamachi, Isesaki, Gunma, Japan.

Harmony: a concept analysis.



This paper is a report of a concept analysis of harmony. BACKGROUND: Historically, harmony has been poorly defined in nursing research. Harmony has been typically associated with music, but this concept also has a place in nursing. The term is used in current literature in various contexts, including the environment, and relating to mind, body, and spirit. Use of the term harmony is also evident in describing physical characteristics and connections between subjects or ideas, and as an adjective. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, and OVID data bases from 1998 to 2003 with the keyword 'harmony'. The reference lists of the identified papers were then searched for further sources and 29 papers were identified for inclusion into the paper. Wilson's process was used to conduct the concept analysis. FINDINGS: Harmony is a major aspect of personal relationships, working relationships, and nurse-patient relationships. Both patient-clinician and clinician-clinician relationships are affected by the three attributes of harmony: balance, peace and rhythm. This balance is also an important factor in the incidence of disease and for optimal health. Five consequences of the concept are identified as pleasant environment, sense of satisfaction, positive self-concept, beautiful sound, or effective programme. CONCLUSION: Harmony is potentially relevant to many aspects of nursing. In order for a nurse to have a positive relationship with a patient, harmony must be present in terms of a pleasant environment, feelings of satisfaction, positive self-concepts, and effective nursing intervention programmes.

J Adv Nurs. 2007 Sep;59(5):551-6. Epub 2007 Jul 2. Easley R. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA. easkyrobine@uams.edu

Influence of musical expertise and musical training on pitch processing



We review a series of experiments aimed at studying pitch processing in music and speech. These studies were conducted with musician and non musician adults and children. We found that musical expertise improved pitch processing not only in music but also in speech. Demonstrating transfer of training between music and language has interesting applications for second language learning. We also addressed the issue of whether the positive effects of musical expertise are linked with specific predispositions for music or with extensive musical practice. Results of longitudinal studies argue for the later. Finally, we also examined pitch processing in dyslexic children and found that they had difficulties discriminating strong pitch changes that are easily discriminate by normal readers. These results argue for a strong link between basic auditory perception abilities and reading abilities. Methods: We used conjointly the behavioral method (Reaction Times and error rates) and the electrophysiological method (recording of the changes in brain electrical activity time-locked to stimulus presentation, Event-Related brain Potentials or ERPs). Results: A set of common processes may be responsible for pitch processing in music and in speech and these processes are shaped by musical practice. Conclusion: These data add evidence in favor of brain plasticity and open interesting perspectives for the remediation of dyslexia using musical training.

Besson M, Schön D, Moreno S, Santos A, Magne C. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2007;25(3-4):399-410. Institut de Neurosciences Cognitives de la Méditerranée, CNRS-Marseille-Universités, France.

Effects of timbre and tempo change on memory for music.



We investigated the effects of different encoding tasks and of manipulations of two supposedly surface parameters of music on implicit and explicit memory for tunes. In two experiments, participants were first asked to either categorize instrument or judge familiarity of 40 unfamiliar short tunes. Subsequently, participants were asked to give explicit and implicit memory ratings for a list of 80 tunes, which included 40 previously heard. Half of the 40 previously heard tunes differed in timbre (Experiment 1) or tempo (Experiment 2) in comparison with the first exposure. A third experiment compared similarity ratings of the tunes that varied in timbre or tempo. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results suggest first that the encoding task made no difference for either memory mode. Secondly, timbre and tempo change both impaired explicit memory, whereas tempo change additionally made implicit tune recognition worse. Results are discussed in the context of implicit memory for nonsemantic materials and the possible differences in timbre and tempo in musical representations.

Q J Exp Psychol (Colchester). 2007 Oct 7;:1 [Epub ahead of print] Halpern AR, Müllensiefen D. Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA, USA.

Creation of a Healing Enhancement Program at an academic medical center.



There has been a growing emphasis on evaluating and improving the experience of the hospitalized patient. In 2004, the Cardiovascular Surgery team at Mayo Clinic Rochester, though achieving a high level of technical expertise and clinical outcomes, recognized that patients were not rating their overall hospital experience as highly as was expected. After a systematic evaluation of the hospital experience, tension, stress, pain, and anxiety were identified as key challenges for patients. A multidisciplinary team was created to evaluate pain management practices and explore methods for reducing pain, anxiety, and tension. An extensive review of the literature and site visits to other institutions provided the foundation for the program. The term "Healing Enhancement" was coined to identify the goals of this emerging paradigm that focused on all aspects of the patient's experience-mind, body, and spirit. Integrated therapies such as music, massage, guided imagery, and relaxation training were explored to measure their role in patient care.

Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2007 Nov;13(4):217-23. Cutshall SM, Fenske LL, Kelly RF, Phillips BR, Sundt TM, Bauer BA. Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

An Information Theoretic Characterisation of Auditory Encoding.



The entropy metric derived from information theory provides a means to quantify the amount of information transmitted in acoustic streams like speech or music. By systematically varying the entropy of pitch sequences, we sought brain areas where neural activity and energetic demands increase as a function of entropy. Such a relationship is predicted to occur in an efficient encoding mechanism that uses less computational resource when less information is present in the signal: we specifically tested the hypothesis that such a relationship is present in the planum temporale (PT). In two convergent functional MRI studies, we demonstrated this relationship in PT for encoding, while furthermore showing that a distributed fronto-parietal network for retrieval of acoustic information is independent of entropy. The results establish PT as an efficient neural engine that demands less computational resource to encode redundant signals than those with high information content.

PLoS Biol. 2007 Oct 23;5(11):e288 Overath T, Cusack R, Kumar S, von Kriegstein K, Warren JD, Grube M, Carlyon RP, Griffiths TD.

Jazz and substance abuse: Road to creative genius or pathway to premature death.



Jazz music and jazz musicians have often been linked for better or worse to the world of addictive substances. Many talented jazz musicians either had their careers sidetracked or prematurely ended due to their addiction to drugs and/or alcohol. The rigors of nightly performances, travel, and for many musicians a disapproving society exacted a toll that impacted the creativity of many artists of the genre. The fact that drug and alcohol use had a significant impact on the performance levels of numerous jazz musicians in the 1940's and 1950's has been much discussed, but more study of that impact is warranted. While recent research has provided new information regarding this challenging topic, there is still much to learn. Indeed, a number of questions for inquiry may be posed. Among those questions are the following: Was the work of these jazz artists truly inspired? Would their creative output have been enhanced had they not been addicted to substances? What was the impact of the addictive substances on their ability to function as creative artists and is there evidence to refute or verify that impact? Are there identifiable traits in certain artists that allowed them to be creative in spite of their addictions? This examination presents an evaluation of the evidence of the link between creativity and substance abuse especially as it relates to selected jazz artists during this time period and how they remained creative and actually prospered in their careers in spite of addictions to controlled substances.

Int J Law Psychiatry. 2007 Oct 25;30(6):530-536 Tolson GH, Cuyjet MJ. Jamey Aebersold Jazz Studies Program, School of Music, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, United States.

Coping with Stress: The Effectiveness of Different Types of Music.



Listening to classical and self-selected relaxing music after exposure to a stressor should result in significant reductions in anxiety, anger, and sympathetic nervous system arousal, and increased relaxation compared to those who sit in silence or listen to heavy metal music. Fifty-six college students, 15 males and 41 females, were exposed to different types of music genres after experiencing a stressful test. Several 4 x 2 mixed design analyses of variance were conducted to determine the effects of music and silence conditions (heavy metal, classical, or self-selected music and silence) and time (pre-post music) on emotional state and physiological arousal. Results indicate listening to self-select or classical music, after exposure to a stressor, significantly reduces negative emotional states and physiological arousal compared to listening to heavy metal music or sitting in silence.

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2007 Oct 27 Labbé E, Schmidt N, Babin J, Pharr M. Department of Psychology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, 36688, USA, elabbe@usouthal.edu.

Characterisation of music-evoked autobiographical memories.



Despite music's prominence in Western society and its importance to individuals in their daily lives, very little is known about the memories and emotions that are often evoked when hearing a piece of music from one's past. We examined the content of music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) using a novel approach for selecting stimuli from a large corpus of popular music, in both laboratory and online settings. A set of questionnaires probed the cognitive and affective properties of the evoked memories. On average, 30% of the song presentations evoked autobiographical memories, and the majority of songs also evoked various emotions, primarily positive, that were often felt strongly. The third most common emotion was nostalgia. Analyses of written memory reports found both general and specific levels of autobiographical knowledge to be represented, and several social and situational contexts for memory formation were common across many memories. The findings indicate that excerpts of popular music serve as potent stimuli for studying the structure of autobiographical memories.

Memory. 2007 Oct 26;:1-16 Janata P, Tomic ST, Rakowski SK. University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Development of a music therapy assessment tool for patients in low awareness states.



People in low awareness states following profound brain injury typically demonstrate subtle changes in functional behaviors which challenge the sensitivity of measurement tools. Failure to identify and measure changes in functioning can lead to misdiagnosis and withdrawal of treatment with this population. Thus, the development of tools which are sensitive to responsiveness is of central concern. As the auditory modality has been found to be particularly sensitive in identifying responses indicating awareness, a convincing case can be made for music therapy as a treatment medium. However, little has been recommended about protocols for intervention or tools for measuring patient responses within the music therapy setting. This paper presents the rationale for an assessment tool specifically designed to measure responses in the music therapy setting with patients who are diagnosed as minimally conscious or in a vegetative state. Developed over fourteen years as part of interdisciplinary assessment and treatment, the music therapy assessment tool for low awareness states (MATLAS) contains fourteen items which rate behavioral responses across a number of domains. The tool can provide important information for interdisciplinary assessment and treatment particularly in the auditory and communication domains. Recommendations are made for testing its reliability and validity through research.

NeuroRehabilitation. 2007;22(4):319-24. Magee WL. Institute of Neuropalliative Rehabilitation, London, UK Department of Palliative Care, Policy and Rehabilitation, Kings College, London, UK.

A Blueprint for Real-Time Functional Mapping via Human Intracranial Recordings.



The surgical treatment of patients with intractable epilepsy is preceded by a pre-surgical evaluation period during which intracranial EEG recordings are performed to identify the epileptogenic network and provide a functional map of eloquent cerebral areas that need to be spared to minimize the risk of post-operative deficits. A growing body of research based on such invasive recordings indicates that cortical oscillations at various frequencies, especially in the gamma range (40 to 150 Hz), can provide efficient markers of task-related neural network activity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we introduce a novel real-time investigation framework for mapping human brain functions based on online visualization of the spectral power of the ongoing intracranial activity. The results obtained with the first two implanted epilepsy patients who used the proposed online system illustrate its feasibility and utility both for clinical applications, as a complementary tool to electrical stimulation for presurgical mapping purposes, and for basic research, as an exploratory tool used to detect correlations between behavior and oscillatory power modulations. Furthermore, our findings suggest a putative role for high gamma oscillations in higher-order auditory processing involved in speech and music perception. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed real-time setup is a promising tool for presurgical mapping, the investigation of functional brain dynamics, and possibly for neurofeedback training and brain computer interfaces.

PLoS ONE. 2007 Oct 31;2(10):e1094. Lachaux JP, Jerbi K, Bertrand O, Minotti L, Hoffmann D, Schoendorff B, Kahane P. INSERM, U821, Lyon, F-69500, France.

A project investigating music therapy referral trends within palliative care.



The purpose of this project is to analyze music therapy (MT) referral trends from palliative care team members across nine Australian inpatient and community-based palliative care settings. For each referral 6 items were collected: referral source, reason and type; time from Palliative Care Program (PCP) admission to MT referral; time from MT referral to death/discharge; and profile of referred patient. Participants (196 female, 158 male) were referred ranging in age from 4-98 years and most were diagnosed with cancer (91%, n = 323). Nurses (47%, n = 167) referred most frequently to music therapy. The mean average time in days for all referrals from PCP admission to MT referral was 11.47 and then 5.19 days to time of death. Differences in length of time to referral ranged from 8.19 days (allied health staff) to 43.75 days (families). Forty-eight percent of referrals (48.5%, n = 172) were completed when the patient was rated at an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance (ECOG) of three. Sixty-nine percent (n = 244) were living with others at the time of referral and most were Australian born. Thirty-six percent (36.7%, n = 130) were referred for symptom-based reasons, and 24.5% (n = 87) for support and coping. Implications for service delivery of music therapy practice, interdisciplinary care and benchmarking of music therapy services shall be discussed.

J Music Ther. 2007 Summer;44(2):139-55.

Horne-Thompson A, Daveson B, Hogan B.

Calvary Health Care Bethlehem, Melbourne, Australia. thompson_anne@optusnet.com.au

Nursing management of wound care pain.



Wound care is an important step in promoting wound healing, but it may cause wound care pain. This article aims to explore factors influencing wound care pain and the effectiveness of various interventions to alleviate it. Five major factors that influence wound care pain include inappropriate dressing change techniques, inflammation response, emotion, cognition, and social-cultural factors. Nurses should apply appropriate dressings and dressing change techniques to relieve wound care pain. Music therapy and aromatherapy can alleviate wound pain after dressing change. But distraction techniques should be used in conjunction with consideration of the needs of the individual subject.

Hu Li Za Zhi. 2007 Jun;54(3):87-91.

[Article in Chinese]

Chin YF.

School of Nursing, Chang Gung University, ROC. yenfan@mail.cgu.edu.tw.

Music as a diagnostic tool in low awareness states: Considering limbic responses.



Primary objective: Examining the evidence from contrasting epistemological sources a case is made for the use of music as an assessment medium with patients in low awareness states. Profound brain damage can result in long-term states of altered consciousness such as vegetative and minimally conscious states. Differential diagnosis with this population is immensely complex requiring diverse approaches. Neuroimaging alone is not, as yet, sufficient to establish diagnosis in this population and must be supplemented by repeated behavioural observation methods from a skilled and diverse treatment team, as there are enormous medico-legal and ethical implications. Evidence from research in neuroimaging and the behavioural health sciences indicates that auditory stimulation can reveal residual functioning and elicit optimal behaviours in such patients, particularly when the stimulation has emotional significance. Main outcomes and results: Behavioural assessment is complicated by limbic behaviours which can be misinterpreted as purposeful emotional responses. A case vignette using music therapy in a complex case illustrates such complications. Conclusions: Given the evidence for residual auditory functioning in patients in low awareness states, music is recommended as a medium for assessment. However, professionals involved in diagnosis must take caution against misinterpreting limbic responses and attributing greater meaning to such behaviours.

Brain Inj. 2007 Jun;21(6):593-9.

Magee WL.

London and Department of Palliative Care, Institute of Neuropalliative Rehabilitation. London. UK.

Creativity, identity and healing: participants' accounts of music therapy in cancer care.



This article reports on findings from a study of the accounts of people participating in music therapy as part of a programme of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in supportive cancer care. The article outlines the perceived effects of music therapy, which shares many characteristics with CAM therapies as well as offering a distinct contribution as a creative therapy. Hence in this article we draw on theories and writings from the sociology of CAM as well as those relating to music, healing and aesthetics in order to explore participants' accounts. The importance of identity and the role of creativity in processes of individuation are key themes emerging from the analysis.While music and creativity are often seen uncritically as resources for health and well-being, we draw attention to the challenges and complexity of diverse responses to music, framed by personal biographies that are in turn often situated within socially constructed notions of aesthetics. We argue that in research on music therapy, as well as other CAM therapies, issues of identity can be key to an understanding of questions of therapeutic impact.

Health (London). 2007 Jul;11(3):349-70.

Daykin N, McClean S, Bunt L.

University of the West of England, UK. norma.daykin@uwe.ac.uk.

Music, imagery, touch, and prayer as adjuncts to interventional cardiac care.



Music, imagery, touch, and prayer as adjuncts to interventional cardiac care: the Monitoring and Actualisation of Noetic Trainings (MANTRA) II randomised study.

BACKGROUND: Data from a pilot study suggested that noetic therapies-healing practices that are not mediated by tangible elements-can reduce preprocedural distress and might affect outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. We undertook a multicentre, prospective trial of two such practices: intercessory prayer and music, imagery, and touch (MIT) therapy. METHODS: 748 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or elective catheterisation in nine USA centres were assigned in a 2x2 factorial randomisation either off-site prayer by established congregations of various religions or no off-site prayer (double-blinded) and MIT therapy or none (unmasked). The primary endpoint was combined in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events and 6-month readmission or death. Prespecified secondary endpoints were 6-month major adverse cardiovascular events, 6 month death or readmission, and 6-month mortality. FINDINGS: 371 patients were assigned prayer and 377 no prayer; 374 were assigned MIT therapy and 374 no MIT therapy. The factorial distribution was: standard care only, 192; prayer only, 182; MIT therapy only, 185; and both prayer and MIT therapy, 189. No significant difference was found for the primary composite endpoint in any treatment comparison. Mortality at 6 months was lower with MIT therapy than with no MIT therapy (hazard ratio 0.35 (95% CI 0.15-0.82, p=0.016). INTERPRETATION: Neither masked prayer nor MIT therapy significantly improved clinical outcome after elective catheterisation or percutaneous coronary intervention.

Krucoff MW, Crater SW, Gallup D, Blankenship JC, Cuffe M, Guarneri M, Krieger RA, Kshettry VR, Morris K, Oz M, Pichard A, Sketch MH, Koenig HG, Mark D, Lee KL.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC 27705, USA. kruco001@mc.duke.edu

The effect of Bach's magnificat on emotions, immune, and endocrine parameters.



The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Bach's Magnificat on emotions, immune, and endocrine parameters in patients of specific infectious lung conditions. Participants (N = 40; 9 men & 31 women) ranging in age from 40 to 75 participated in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to an experimental and control group. During a 3-day period the experimental group received physiotherapy with the selected music, while the control group only received physiotherapy. ANOVA statistics indicate significant changes in the following parameters: POMS-scale, CD4+:CD8+ ratio, cortisol, and cortisol:DHEA ratio. The intervention of music demonstrates communication between the mind and body.

J Music Ther. 2007 Summer;44(2):156-68. le Roux FH, Bouic PJ, Bester MM. Physiotherapy Private Practice, Fish Hoek, South Africa.

Musical brains:



Our observations confirm that musical sensations with no external stimuli, either spontaneous or evoked, occur in normal individuals and that a biological substrate can be demonstrated by brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). OBJECTIVES: There are individuals, usually musicians, who are seemingly able to evoke and/or have spontaneous musical sensations without external auditory stimuli. However, to date there is no available evidence to determine if it is feasible to have musical sensations without using external sensory receptors, or if there is a biological substrate for these sensations. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A group of 100 musicians and another of 150 otolaryngologists were asked if they had spontaneous musical auditory sensations and/or were capable of evoking them. SPECT evaluations with Tc(99m)-HMPAO were conducted in six female musicians while they were evoking these sensations or, in one case, while she was having them spontaneously. In three of them an additional SPECT was conducted in basal conditions (having been asked to avoid evoking music). RESULTS: In all, 97 of 100 musicians had spontaneous musical sensations; all 100 could evoke and modify them. Of the 150 otolaryngologists, 18 (12%) were musicians. Of the 132 nonmusicians, spontaneous musical sensations occurred in 52 (39.4%), 72 (54.5%) could evoke and 23 (17.4%) were able to modify them, 58 (43.9%) did not have spontaneous musical sensations nor could they evoke them. The musical sensations of the 72 otolaryngologists that could evoke were less elaborated than those of musicians. NeuroSPECT during voluntary musical autoevocation demonstrated significant (>2 SD) increased activation of executive frontal cortex in Brodmann areas 9 and 10, secondary visual cortex (area 17), and paracingulate (areas 31 and 32). There was also activation in the para-executive frontal cortex (areas 45 and 46). In the basal ganglia there was activation in thalamus and lentiform nucleus. Deactivation below 2 SD was demonstrated by mean values in the cingulate gyrus, Brodmann areas 23 and 24, and subgenual area 25. Deactivation was also demonstrated when minimal values were analyzed in the same areas plus area 4 and areas 36 and 38, the latter in the pole of the temporal lobes. In three patients comparison of basal state with autoevocation demonstrated activation in executive frontal cortex (areas 8 and 9), para-executive cortex (area 45), primary auditory cortex (area 40), the right thalamus, and lentiform nucleus.

Acta Otolaryngol. 2007 Jul;127(7):711-21. Goycoolea MV, Mena I, Neubauer SG, Levy RG, Grez MF, Berger CG. Clínica Las Condes and Chilean National Conservatory of Music, Santiago, Chile. mgoycool@mi.cl

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