Tim Brunson DCH

Welcome to The International Hypnosis Research Institute Web site. Our intention is to support and promote the further worldwide integration of comprehensive evidence-based research and clinical hypnotherapy with mainstream mental health, medicine, and coaching. We do so by disseminating, supporting, and conducting research, providing professional level education, advocating increased level of practitioner competency, and supporting the viability and success of clinical practitioners. Although currently over 80% of our membership is comprised of mental health practitioners, we fully recognize the role, support, involvement, and needs of those in the medical and coaching fields. This site is not intended as a source of medical or psychological advice. Tim Brunson, PhD

Behavioral and Diet Therapies in Integrated Care for Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, symptom-based condition that has negative effects on quality of life and costs health care systems billions of dollars each year. Until recently, management of IBS has focused on over-the-counter and prescription medications that reduce symptoms in fewer than one-half of patients. Patients have increasingly sought natural solutions for their IBS symptoms. However, behavioral techniques and dietary modifications can be effective in treatment of IBS. Behavioral interventions include gastrointestinal-focused cognitive behavioral therapy and gut-directed hypnotherapy to modify interactions between the gut and the brain. In this pathway, benign sensations from the gut induce maladaptive cognitive or affective processes that amplify symptom perception. Symptoms occur in response to cognitive and affective factors that trigger fear of symptoms or lack of acceptance of disease, or from stressors in the external environment. Among the many dietary interventions used to treat patients with IBS, a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols is the most commonly recommended by health care providers and has the most evidence for efficacy. Patient with IBS who choose to follow a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols should be aware of its 3 phases: restriction, reintroduction, and personalization. Management of IBS should include an integrated care model in which behavioral interventions, dietary modification, and medications are considered as equal partners. This approach offers the greatest likelihood for success in management of patients with IBS.

Gastroenterology. 2021 Jan;160(1):47-62. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.06.099. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Hypnotherapy for overweight and obese patients: A narrative review.

Obesity and overweight problems are serious global health issues today and despite many efforts, the prevalence has continued to rise for decades. Interestingly, hypnotherapy has been gaining recognition as an effective treatment for obesity and overweight problems. This review compiles contemporary scientific research on the effectiveness of hypnotherapy for weight reduction. Scopus, PubMed and EBSCO Host databases were applied in the study. The search identified 119 articles, of which seven met the inclusion criteria. A total of 539 respondents (82.7% women and 17.3% men) between the ages of 17 and 67 years were represented in the seven studies. Most studies incorporated lifestyle changes, such as changes of dietary habit and behavioral recommendations in the hypnotic procedure. Their results suggested that the use of hypnotherapy not only promoted weight reduction during the treatment period but also after treatment cessation, and in some cases, one to ten kilograms were lost during follow-up periods. In addition, one study even showed increased physical activity among the hypnotised individuals. This use of hypnotherapy also improved respondents' eating behavior and quality of life. However, a definitive conclusion could not be drawn due to several methodological flaws and the limited number of published studies in this area. Therefore, further well-designed studies are needed to substantiate the effectiveness of hypnotherapy for this modern-day health problem.

J Integr Med. 2021 Jan;19(1):1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.joim.2020.10.006. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Mind-body (hypnotherapy) treatment of women with urgency urinary incontinence...

Full title: Mind-body (hypnotherapy) treatment of women with urgency urinary incontinence: changes in brain attentional networks.

BACKGROUND: Prior study of patients with urgency urinary incontinence by functional magnetic resonance imaging showed altered function in areas of the brain associated with interoception and salience and with attention. Our randomized controlled trial of hypnotherapy for urgency urinary incontinence demonstrated marked improvement in urgency urinary incontinence symptoms at 2 months. A subsample of these women with urgency urinary incontinence underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after treatment. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine if hypnotherapy treatment of urgency urinary incontinence compared with pharmacotherapy was associated with altered brain activation or resting connectivity on functional magnetic resonance imaging. STUDY DESIGN: A subsample of women participating in a randomized controlled trial comparing hypnotherapy vs pharmacotherapy for treatment of urgency urinary incontinence was evaluated with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Scans were obtained pretreatment and 8 to 12 weeks after treatment initiation. Brain activation during bladder filling and resting functional connectivity with an empty and partially filled bladder were assessed. Brain regions of interest were derived from those previously showing differences between healthy controls and participants with untreated urgency urinary incontinence in our prior work and included regions in the interoceptive and salience, ventral attentional, and dorsal attentional networks. RESULTS: After treatment, participants in both groups demonstrated marked improvement in incontinence episodes (P<.001). Bladder-filling task functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the combined groups (n=64, 30 hypnotherapy, 34 pharmacotherapy) demonstrated decreased activation of the left temporoparietal junction, a component of the ventral attentional network (P<.01) compared with baseline. Resting functional connectivity differed only with the bladder partially filled (n=54). Compared with pharmacotherapy, hypnotherapy participants manifested increased functional connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a component of the dorsal attentional network (P<.001). CONCLUSION: Successful treatment of urgency urinary incontinence with both pharmacotherapy and hypnotherapy was associated with decreased activation of the ventral (bottom-up) attentional network during bladder filling. This may be attributable to decreased afferent stimuli arising from the bladder in the pharmacotherapy group. In contrast, decreased ventral attentional network activation associated with hypnotherapy may be mediated by the counterbalancing effects of the dorsal (top-down) attentional network.

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2021 May;224(5):498.e1-498.e10. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2020.10.041. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Paediatric functional abdominal pain disorders.

Paediatric functional abdominal pain disorders, currently referred to as disorders of gut-brain interaction, comprise irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia, abdominal migraine and functional abdominal pain not otherwise specified, as defined by the Rome IV diagnostic criteria. Functional abdominal pain disorders are common disorders with a prevalence of 3-16% depending on country, age and sex. A greater understanding of aetiopathogenesis and pathophysiology is emerging and includes intestinal components (inflammation, motility and the microbiota), central factors (psychological aspects, sensitization and/or differences in connectivity or activity of certain brain regions) as well as extrinsic factors (infections). In particular, the timing of disruption of the microbiota-gut-brain axis seems to be important. Diagnosis is challenging but is primarily based on clinical symptoms and exclusion of other organic causes, with an emphasis on avoiding unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. The available pharmacological interventions are limited in children and, therefore, management has focused on combined approaches, including mind-targeted interventions (hypnotherapy and cognitive behavioural therapy), diet (probiotics) and percutaneous electrical nerve field stimulation. The evidence for their clinical efficacy, although limited, is favourable, with positive impacts on symptoms and overall quality of life. The coming decades hold promise for improved understanding and management of these enigmatic disorders.

Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2020 Nov 5;6(1):89. doi: 10.1038/s41572-020-00222-5.

Practitioners' experiences of using Gut Directed Hypnosis for irritable bowel syndrome...

Full title: Practitioners' experiences of using Gut Directed Hypnosis for irritable bowel syndrome: Perceived impact upon client wellbeing: A qualitative study.

Gut Directed Hypnosis (GDH) is a specialised form of hypnotherapy originally developed to reduce gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in individuals with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). IBS is a condition characterised by symptoms including bloating, abdominal pain and diarrhoea and/or constipation as well as psychosocial symptoms such as depression and anxiety. Although the specific mechanism of action remains unclear, it is suggested that GDH works on the brain-gut axis to improve GI symptoms, psychological functioning and overall wellbeing. The present study aimed to expand upon the knowledge surrounding GDH by exploring practitioners' experiences of using GDH for IBS and their perceptions of how it impacts upon client wellbeing. Six practitioners trained in GDH participated in one hour semi-structured interviews. Thematic Analyses (TA) was used to analyse data. Three major themes emerged from data including: predisposing personality traits and vulnerabilities associated with IBS; GDH as evidence-based practice; and the future evolution of GDH. The findings from this study add to the growing body of literature exploring the use of GDH for IBS, by incorporating the perspective of practitioners working within this field.

Complement Ther Med. 2020 Dec;55:102605. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102605. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Group hypnosis for stress reduction and improved stress coping...

Full title: Group hypnosis for stress reduction and improved stress coping: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

BACKGROUND: The aim of the trial was to investigate the effect of a hypnotherapeutic group program in healthy persons with increased levels of perceived stress. METHODS: In a randomized controlled multicenter trial participants with a self-assessed subjective stress level???40?mm on a visual analogue scale (0-100?mm; VAS) for the previous week and a stable state of health were randomized to either 5 weekly sessions of 120-min duration of a hypnotherapeutic group program for stress reduction and improved stress coping plus 5 hypnosis audiorecords for individual practice at home plus an educational booklet for stress coping (hypnosis group) versus an educational booklet only (control group). The primary outcome parameter was the VAS stress level for the previous week after 5?weeks. Secondary outcome parameters included the VAS stress level after 12?weeks, perceived stress (CPSS), depression (ADS-K), self efficacy (SWE) and quality of life (SF 36) after 5?weeks and 12?weeks. Analysis of covariance with a significance level of 5% using the full analysis set was used for analysis; the model included treatment (fixed effect), VAS baseline value (fixed covariate), and center (random effect). RESULTS: A total of 95 participants were randomized; 47 (40 female, 45?±?13.4?years of age) were allocated to the hypnosis group, and 48 (41 female, 46.9?±?14.3?years) were allocated to the control group. Regarding VAS stress level after 5?weeks, the adjusted VAS mean in the hypnosis group was 41.8?mm [95% confidence interval (CI): 35.2; 48.4] compared to 62.9?mm [56.2; 69.7] in the control group, and the group difference was - 21.2?mm [-?30.1; -?12.2] (P BMC Complement Med Ther. 2020 Nov 13;20(1):344. doi: 10.1186/s12906-020-03129-6.

The Management of Burn Pain in a Pediatric Burns-Specialist Hospital.

Appropriate pain management for children who have experienced an acute burn injury is critical to improve patient outcomes and reduce potential morbidities. With 60% of our patients being under the age of 4 years, pain management is crucial in reducing pain and anxiety in both patients and parents. It is imperative that appropriate pain relief is commenced from initial contact with healthcare workers as this will affect the success or failure of future wound procedures. Uncontrolled pain can negatively affect a patient, both short and long term. It may cause anticipatory anxiety for future medical procedures, increased pain and anxiety can decrease wound re-epithelialization which can lead to long-term consequences for growth and mobility, and increased pain can also influence the possibility of patients and families displaying signs of post-traumatic stress disorder. Pain management in the form of pharmaceuticals is imperative during burn wound treatment and should incorporate pain relief targeted at both background and procedural pain. It also requires a multimodal, individualized, and targeted approach combining both pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical techniques, including cold running water, multimodal distraction devices, hypnotherapy, and bubbles. We discuss the research and knowledge that our center has gained through treating pediatric patients with burns over the last 20 years.

Paediatr Drugs. 2021 Jan;23(1):1-10. doi: 10.1007/s40272-020-00434-y. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Effectiveness of Complementary Therapies in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review.

According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world. In Spain, about a quarter of a million cases were diagnosed in 2017, and 81% of the Spanish population has used, at least once, some kind of complementary therapy. Said therapies are increasingly being used by cancer patients. The purpose of the study is to analyse the effectiveness of complementary therapies among cancer patients. A systematic peer review was conducted following the PRISMA-ScR guide in four databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and WOS). The inclusion criteria were Randomised Clinical Trials, published between 2013 and 2018, with a value of 3 or more on the Jadad Scale. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42019127593). The study sample amounted to 1845 patients (64.55% women), the most common being breast cancer patients (794), followed by lung cancer patients (341). Fifteen complementary therapies were identified. We found two studies for each of the following: electroacupuncture, phytotherapy, hypnotherapy, guided imagery and progressive muscle relaxation. From the remaining ones, we identified a study on each therapy. The findings reveal some effective complementary therapies: auriculotherapy and acupuncture, laser moxibustion, hypnosis, Ayurveda, electroacupuncture, progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery, yoga, phytotherapy, music therapy and traditional Chinese medicine. On the other hand, electroacupuncture, laser moxibustion and traditional Chinese medicine presented adverse effects, and kinesiology did not show effectiveness.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jan 24;18(3):1017. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18031017.

Hypnotherapy for Procedural Pain and Distress in Children: A scoping Review Protocol.

OBJECTIVE: Inadequately treated pain and distress elicited by medical procedures can put children at higher risks of acute and chronic biopsychosocial sequelae. Children can benefit from hypnotherapy, a psychological tailored intervention, as an adjunct to pharmacological agents to address the multiple components of pain and distress. Despite providing evidence on the effectiveness and potential superiority of hypnotherapy to other psychological interventions, research on hypnotherapy for paediatric procedural pain and distress has been predominantly limited to oncology and needle procedures. Plus, there is a lack of reporting of intervention manuals, factors influencing hypnotic responding, pain unpleasantness outcomes, theoretical frameworks, adverse events, as well as barriers and facilitators to the feasibility of delivering the intervention and study procedures. The proposed review aims to map the range and nature of the evidence on hypnotherapy for procedural pain and distress in children to identify gaps in literature and areas requiring further investigation. METHODS: This review will follow the Arksey and O'Malley (2005) methodology and incorporate additional scoping review recommendations by The Joanna Briggs Institute and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses. Relevant studies will be identified through searching published literature databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science) and grey literature in addition to hand-searching of reference lists and key journals. Two authors will independently screen titles and abstracts of search results followed by full-texts review against eligibility criteria. CONCLUSION: Findings are anticipated to guide future research and inform the development of tailored hypnotic interventions in children.

Pain Med. 2021 Feb 2:pnab038. doi: 10.1093/pm/pnab038.

"Living Well with Chronic Pain": Integrative Pain Management via Shared Medical Appointments.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary, nonpharmacological, integrative approach that uses shared medical appointments to improve health-related quality of life and reduce opioid medication use in patients with chronic pain. DESIGN: This is a retrospective, pre-post review of "Living Well with Chronic Pain" shared medical appointments (August 2016 through May 2018). SETTING: The appointments included eight 3-hour-long visits held once per week at an outpatient wellness facility. SUBJECTS: Patients with chronic, non-cancer-related pain. METHODS: Patients received evaluation and evidence-based therapies from a team of integrative and lifestyle medicine professionals, as well as education about nonpharmacological therapeutic approaches, the etiology of pain, and the relationship of pain to lifestyle factors. Experiential elements focused on the relaxation techniques of meditation, yoga, breathing, and hypnotherapy, while patients also received acupuncture, acupressure, massage, cognitive behavioral therapy, and chiropractic education. Patients self-reported data via the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS-57) standardized questionnaire. Use of opioid medications was evaluated in morphine milligram equivalents. RESULTS: A total of 178 participants completed the PROMIS-57 questionnaire at the first and the last visits. Statistically significant improvements in all domains (Physical Functioning, Anxiety, Depression, Fatigue, Social Roles, Pain Interference, and Sleep Disturbance) were observed (P? Pain Med. 2021 Feb 4;22(1):181-190. doi: 10.1093/pm/pnaa418.

The use of hypnotherapy as treatment for functional stroke...

Full title: The use of hypnotherapy as treatment for functional stroke: A case series from a single center in the UK.

BACKGROUND: Functional neurological disorder is defined by symptoms not explained by the current model of disease and its pathophysiology. It is found in 8.4% of patients presenting as acute stroke. Treatment is difficult and recurrence rates are high. We introduced hypnotherapy as a therapeutic option in addition to standard stroke unit care. METHODS: This is an observational study of successive patients with functional neurological disorder presenting as acute stroke treated with hypnotherapy between 1 April 2014 and 1 February 2018. The diagnosis of functional neurological disorder was confirmed by clinical examination and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging. Hypnosis was delivered by a hypnotherapy trained stroke physician using imagery for induction. A positive response was defined as a National Institutes of Health Stroke score reduction to 0 or by ?4 points posthypnotherapy. Costs were calculated as therapist time and benefits as reduction in disability/bed days. RESULTS: Sixty-eight patients (mean age 36.4 years, 52 (76%) females, mean baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke 5.0 (range 1-9)) were included. Two patients (3%) could not be hypnotized. Fifty-eight 58 (85%) responded, 47 (81%) required one treatment session, while 19% needed up to three sessions for symptomatic improvement. No adverse events were observed. Disability (modified Rankin Scale) reduced from a mean of 2.3 to 0.5 resulting in an average cost saving of £1,658 per patient. Most (n = 50, 86%) remained well without recurrence at six-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In this case series, hypnotherapy was associated with rapid and sustained recovery of symptoms. A prospective randomized controlled study is required to confirm the findings and establish generalizability of the results.

Int J Stroke. 2021 Feb 27:1747493021995590. doi: 10.1177/1747493021995590.

Feasibility of Attention Restoration Theory-Driven Hypnotherapy for Fatigue in Cancer Survivors.

This study aimed to assess the feasibility of Attention Restoration Theory (ART)-driven hypnotherapy to address cancer-related fatigue (CRF). Six participants with CRF completed the study. Participants completed measures of fatigue and pain pre- and posttreatment of 5 sessions of ART-driven hypnotherapy, each of which followed a treatment manual. Results indicate that participants experienced reductions in fatigue, fatigue bothersomeness, and pain following the intervention. Additionally, participants reported high levels of treatment satisfaction. This innovative intervention of ART-driven hypnotherapy appears to be feasible and warrants further study in a controlled trial with a larger sample.

J Clin Exp Hypn. 2021 Apr-Jun;69(2):203-214. doi: 10.1080/00207144.2021.1877088. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Role of Hypnosis in Dental Treatment: A Narrative Review.

AIM: This narrative aims to outline the use of hypnosis in managing dental anxiety in during dental treatment. The PICO used to answer the objectives are (P) dental patients, (I) hypnosis, (C) conventional behaviour management techniques & (O) reduced pain/anxiety. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic search of three databases; PubMed, Scopus and EBSCOhost was conducted using the keywords "hypnosis or hypnotherapy" AND "dentistry or dental" between the year 2000 and 2020. A total of 19 studies were selected based on eligibility. Data extracted were study subject, design of study, parameters used to assess, type of hypnosis script used and the study outcome. RESULTS: The studies show that hypnosis is effective in pain management and dental anxiety. It can also be used for improving compliance in patients who are wearing orthodontic appliances (Trakyali et al, 2008) and reducing salivary flow during dental treatment (Satlz et al, 2014). CONCLUSION: Hypnosis has the potential to be a useful tool in the management of children and adults.

J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2021 Apr 15;11(2):115-124. doi: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_320_20. eCollection 2021 Mar-Apr.

You're Going to Do What? ...

Full title: You're Going to Do What? Patients' Myths Regarding Hypnotherapy as Described by South African Psychologists.

The aim of this qualitative study was to explore and describe South African registered psychologists' account of their patients' myths regarding hypnotherapy. A social constructivist approach was employed to explore the descriptions of eight psychologists. This article converges on myths of participants' patients and where they originate from, as described by the participants. Psychologists were selected by means of chain referral sampling and engaged in one semi-structured interview. Data were analyzed by means of thematic analysis (TA), and participants elaborated on their experience of patients' myths and the possible origins thereof. Furthermore, conclusions were drawn across themes, which contributed to the findings. The most important finding indicated that while hypnotherapy is of great value, misconceptions stemming largely from unscientific applications contribute to patients' reluctance in utilizing this mechanism. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications, limitations and strengths of the study, as well as recommendations for future research.

Integr Psychol Behav Sci. 2021 Sep;55(3):527-540. doi: 10.1007/s12124-021-09604-0. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Burnout Syndrome: Therapeutic Approach With Beneficial Effects on Personality and Quality of Life.

CONTEXT: The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined burnout syndrome (BOS) as resulting from chronic workplace stress that hasn't been successfully managed. Until now, BOS has been treated using allopathic drugs and psychotherapy because it has been confused with major depressive syndrome. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of hypnotherapy combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy in changing the personality traits and lifestyles of people in professions vulnerable to stress who have developed BOS. DESIGN: The research team designed a one-group pre-and posttest study. SETTING: The study was conducted in a private-practice office in Targu Mures, Romania. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 30 patients at the private practice who had been diagnosed with BOS and volunteered to participate in the study. INTERVENTION: The study alternated hypnotherapy sessions with psychological-counseling sessions, using a general therapeutic plan for all patients and customizing the plan for each participant. OUTCOME MEASURES: The study measured participants' BOS symptomatology and personality dimensions using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the DECAS Personality Inventory, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID5), and the Survey of Work Styles (SWS). RESULTS: Significant changes occurred between baseline an postintervention in the dimensions of extraversion, agreeability, and emotional stability as well as impatience, anger, work involvement, time urgency, job dissatisfaction, and competitiveness. Significant differences existed in almost all personality traits evaluated with the PID-5 (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of hypnotherapy and psychological counseling can treat BOS, increasing patients' quality of life by decreasing negative personality traits. The present study is important because it proposes a new therapeutic approach to BOS.

Altern Ther Health Med. 2021 Mar 31:AT6681.

The feasibility and acceptability of hypnotherapy among overweight and obese individuals...

OBJECTIVES: The global epidemic of overweight and obesity presents a major challenge in the health status of the society. Their prevalence is at an alarming rate worldwide due to poor compliance with conventional treatment and high rates of relapse, thus increasing demand for an effective and safe alternative approach such as hypnotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of hypnotherapy for weight loss and to compare these among selected socio-demographics. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 30 students and staff of a public university in Terengganu, Malaysia using convenience sampling. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS 23.0. RESULTS: Among the respondents (age = 26.17 ± 8.23 years; female = 66.7%; students = 63.3%), 40.0% were overweight and 60.0% were obese. Results indicated excellent feasibility as determined by participants' satisfaction towards the clarity of hypnotherapist's voice (93.3%), the suitability of content (86.7%) and time spent for the session (90.0%). Good overall acceptability (>60.0%) was also reported regarding hypnotherapist professionalism, the environment and perceived usefulness of hypnotherapy. Obese individuals were significantly more satisfied towards the hypnotherapist environment than overweight respondents (p=0.015). Additionally, no adverse effects were reported after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: This evidence signalled that hypnotherapy is a promising alternative tool in assisting overweight and obese individuals to lose weight. Extensive research is needed to substantiate its role in weight management programs for its full benefits.

J Complement Integr Med. 2021 Apr 1. doi: 10.1515/jcim-2020-0177.

Current neuroscientific research database findings of brain activity changes after hypnosis.

Using multi-modal brain imaging techniques we found pronounced changes in neuronal activity after hypnotic trance induction whereby state changes seem to occur synchronously with the specific induction instructions. In clinical patients, hypnosis proved to be a powerful method in inhibiting the reaction of the fear circuitry structures. The aim of the present paper is to critically discuss the limitations of the current neuroscientific research database in the light of a debate in defining relevant hypnotic constructs and to suggest ideas for future research projects. We discuss the role of hypnotic suggestibility (HS), the impact of hypnotic inductions and the importance of the depth of hypnotic trance. We argue that future research on brain imaging studies on the effects of hypnosis and hypnotherapy should focus on the analysis of individual cross-network activation patterns. A most promising approach is to simultaneously include physiological parameters linked to cognitive, somatic, and behavioral effects.

Am J Clin Hypn. 2021 Apr;63(4):372-388. doi: 10.1080/00029157.2020.1863185.

Hypnosis in Treatment of Stomatodynia: Preliminary Retrospective Study of 12 Cases.

Stomatodynia is an oral dysesthesia with a psychosomatic component. Twelve consecutive patients with stomatodynia were offered hypnosis sessions. Measures of anxiety, depression, and pain were administered before the first and after the last hypnosis session. Pain severity was assessed with a Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Anxiety and depression were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The data were collected retrospectively from medical records on the 12 patients. The difference between NRS pain ratings and HADS scores before and after hypnosis was significant (p < .05). Six patients reported receiving treatment for stomatodynia before hypnotherapy; 3 of them stopped treatment for stomatodynia before completion of the hypnosis intervention. Results provide support for potential positive effects of hypnosis intervention for stomatodynia and point to the need for additional research on this issue.

Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2021 Jul-Sep;69(3):346-354. doi: 10.1080/00207144.2021.1912611. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Effect of Hypnotherapy for Obesity

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hypnotherapy on the treatment of obesity, which seriously affects people's quality of life. We evaluated the changes in Body Mass Indexes with hypnotherapy used to treat obesity. METHODS: A total of 230 subjects with a Body Mass Index of 25 and over, who completed a minimum of 10-week sessions, were included in the study. The participants were first identified with the information form and the Body Mass Index. Then, once a week hypnotherapy session was performed for at least 10 weeks. This study is a non-randomized prospective study examining the effect of hypnotherapy on body mass index. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the, dinner heavy meals and regular exercise or movement, and there was no statistically significant difference in terms of the baseline and endpoint of hypnotherapy (P = .777 and P = .770). There was a statistically significant difference in terms of sex and night feeding status at the beginning and end of hypnotherapy (P = .042 and P < .001). According to the Body Mass Indexes at the beginning and end of hypnotherapy; The initial Body Mass Index was 34.83 ± 5.81 and the end Body Mass Index was 32.61 ± 5.66. The difference was statistically significant (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: It has been found that hypnotherapy is an effective method in the obesity treatment. It is easy to apply, cheap, effective, no side effect potential, the advantages of being added either alone or in other treatments.

Altern Ther Health Med. 2021 Jun 4:AT6132.

The neural mechanisms of immediate and follow-up of the treatment effect of hypnosis...

Full title: The neural mechanisms of immediate and follow-up of the treatment effect of hypnosis on smoking craving.

Hypnosis has a therapeutic effect on substance dependence. However, its neural basis remains unclear, which impedes its further clinical applications. This study investigated the mechanisms of smoking treatment based on hypnosis from two perspectives: immediate and follow-up effects. Twenty-four smokers screened from 132 volunteers underwent hypnosis suggestion and performed a smoking-related cue task twice during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning (in normal and hypnotic states). The number of cigarettes smoked per day was recorded at follow-up visits. The smokers reported decreased craving after hypnosis. The activations in the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC), the left insula and the right middle frontal gyrus (rMFG), and the functional connectivity between the rDLPFC and the left insula were increased in the hypnotic state. The reduced craving was related to the DLPFC-insula network, which reflected the immediate mechanism of hypnosis on smoking. The number of cigarette use at the 1-week and 1 month follow-up was correlated with the rMFG activation which reflecting hypnotic depth, suggesting the follow-up effect of hypnosis on smoking depended on the trait of smokers. We identified two different mechanisms of hypnosis effect on smoking, which have important implications for design and optimization of hypnotic treatments on mental disorders.

Brain Imaging Behav. 2020 Oct;14(5):1487-1497. doi: 10.1007/s11682-019-00072-0.

Self-help interventions for young people with persistent physical symptoms...

Full title: Self-help interventions for young people with persistent physical symptoms: A systematic review

Objective: Persistent physical symptoms are frequent among young people causing considerable social, psychological, and economic consequences. Easily accessible interventions adapted to non-specialized settings are needed. We aimed to systematically review randomized controlled trials on self-help interventions for young people with persistent physical symptoms compared to active or passive control groups. Our purpose was to 1) describe applied therapeutic approaches and content and 2) examine potential effects on symptom burden and psychosocial outcomes.

Methods: We included randomized controlled trials on minimal contact self-help interventions for young people with persistent physical symptoms. Systematic literature searches in PubMed, Cochrane Central, Embase, and PsycINFO were conducted. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by two reviewers. A narrative synthesis of the effects was performed.

Results: We identified 11 studies on self-help interventions for young people. The methodological quality of the studies was generally low. Participants suffered from impairing fatigue, headache, abdominal pain, and musculoskeletal or multi-site pain. Applied therapeutic approaches were cognitive behavioral therapy, relaxation training, hypnotherapy, and written self-disclosure. Outcomes were diverse and mainly related to symptom burden, whereas psychosocial outcomes were only sporadically examined. Overall, evidence of effectiveness of self-help interventions in alleviating symptom burden was weak, and potential effects could not be linked to one specific theoretical approach.

Conclusion: Few self-help interventions of diverse content exist for young people with persistent physical symptoms. Rigorously designed studies that include recommended outcome domains assessed by aligned measures are needed to determine and compare the clinical value of such interventions.

J Psychosom Res. 2021 Jun 19;148:110553. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2021.110553.

Hypnotherapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome...

Full title: Hypnotherapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Type Symptoms in Patients with Quiescent Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

Background and aims: Many inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] patients in remission have persisting symptoms, compatible with irritable bowel syndrome [IBS-type symptoms]. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of gut-directed hypnotherapy vs standard medical treatment [SMT] for IBS-type symptoms in IBD patients.

Methods: In this multicentre, randomized, controlled, open-label trial, patients aged 12-65 years with IBD in clinical remission [global assessment] and biochemical remission [faecal calprotectin ?100 µg/g, or ?200 µg/g without inflammation at endoscopy] with IBS according to Rome III criteria were randomized to hypnotherapy or SMT. Primary outcome was the proportion with ?50% reduction on a visual analog scale for symptom severity, as measured with the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Severity Scoring System [IBS-SSS] at week 40 [i.e. 6 months after finishing the intervention], compared to baseline. Secondary outcomes included total IBS-SSS score, quality of life, adequate relief, IBS-related cognitions, and depression and anxiety scores.

Results: Eighty patients were included, of whom 70 received at least one session of the allocated treatment and were included in the modified intention-to-treat-population. Seven patients were excluded because of missing baseline data required for the primary outcome. The primary outcome was met in nine [27%] of 33 patients randomized to SMT and nine [30%] of 30 patients randomized to hypnotherapy [p = 0.81]. Adequate relief was reported in 60% and 40% of subjects, respectively. Exploratory analyses of secondary outcomes revealed no apparent differences between the two treatment groups.

Conclusions: Hypnotherapy was not superior to SMT in the treatment of IBS-type symptoms in IBD patients. Both treatment strategies are reasonable options from a clinical perspective.

J Psychosom Res. 2021 Jun 19;148:110553. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2021.110553.

Healing and Hypnosis

by Tim Brunson, PhD

The power of the mind over the body is a feel-good cliché referred to by self-help gurus and alternative health care authorities. However, does this have merit – and especially scientific credibility? Or, is this merely idealist hogwash?

Hard-nosed scientific medical authorities and other skeptics have a hard time believing that suggestion and imagination can have any effect over the healing process. Even though there seems to be a general acceptance that chronic stress does have long-term medical implications, beyond that many cannot fathom the possibility that how you think will have anything to do the ability for cells and organs to return to a healthy state.


Pain Management - Hypnosis Session - By Thomas Hall

Lower Back Pain Relief Hypnosis Session

Robert Otto

Robert has worked in the field of Mind Dynamics for over 20 years, having conducted in excess of 4,500 workshops and seminars. Speaking on behavior modification to as many as 150,000 people in 29 states, he is considered by his peers to be a "World-Class Presenter" and serves as convention faculty staff for: The International Medical and Dental Hypnotherapy Association The National Guild of Hypnotists The International Association of Counselors and Therapists International Hypnosis Federation The American Board of Hypnotherapy The American Council of Hypnosis Examiners The National Board for Hypnotherapy and Hypnotic Anesthesiology The Mid-America Hypnosis Conference The North Coast Hypnosis Society.


Hypnotizability and Performance on a Prism Adaptation Test.

The susceptibility to hypnosis, which can be measured by scales, is not merely a cognitive trait. In fact, it is associated with a number of physiological correlates in the ordinary state of consciousness and in the absence of suggestions. The hypnotizability-related differences observed in sensorimotor integration suggested a major role of the cerebellum in the peculiar performance of healthy subjects with high scores of hypnotic susceptibility (highs). In order to provide behavioral evidence of this hypothesis, we submitted 20 highs and 21 low hypnotizable participants (lows) to the classical cerebellar Prism Adaptation Test (PAT). We found that the highs' performance was significantly less accurate and more variable than the lows' one, even though the two groups shared the same characteristics of adaptation to prismatic lenses. Although further studies are required to interpret these findings, they could account for earlier reports of hypnotizability-related differences in postural control and blink rate, as they indicate that hypnotizability influences the cerebellar control of sensorimotor integration.

Cerebellum. 2015 Apr 26. Menzocchi M(1), Mecacci G, Zeppi A, Carli G, Santarcangelo EL. Author information: (1)Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Neuroscience, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Conscious Cogn. 2015 May;33:170-84. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2014.11.013. Epub 2015 Jan 14. Maxwell R(1), Lynn SJ(2), Condon L(1). Author information: (1)Department of Psychology, Binghamton University, United States. (2)Department of Psychology, Binghamton University, United States. Electronic address: stevenlynn100@gmail.com.

Paul G. Durbin PhD

Paul G. Durbin PhD, an ordained United Methodist Minister and a retired U.S. National Guard Chaplain (brigadeer general), is the author of over 100 articles on subjects such as pastoral care, death, dying, and grief, stress management, false memory syndrome, ethical considerations in health card, hypnosis, and hypnotherapy. He has written three books, which are Human Trinity Hypnotherapy, Kissing Frogs, and Hypnotherapy for Body, Mind, and Spririt. He is the former president of the International Medical and Dental Hypnotherapy Association.

For More Information visit: www.DurbinHypnosis.com

Jonathan D. Cowan, Ph.D.

Jonathan Cowan, Ph.D., BCIAC, the founder and Chairman of NeuroTek, is a well-known and respected researcher and pioneer in interactive performance enhancement training. He is a Peak Performance Specialist who understands that NeuroVideoFeedback™ technology has the ability to improve people's lives by increasing their focus and decreasing stress. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of California, San Francisco, where he worked with Dr. Joe Kamiya, the discoverer of brainwave biofeedback. Dr. Cowan is committed to making this powerful technology widely available for consumer, professional and institutional use.


Doug Noll, Esq.

Douglas E. Noll, Esq. is a full time mediator, specializing in difficult, complex, and intractable conflicts. Doug attended Dartmouth College, received his law degree from University of the Pacific McGeorge School of Law, and his Masters Degree in Peacemaking and Conflict Studies from Fresno Pacific University. He is an adjunct professor of law and chair of the board of trustees at San Joaquin College of Law. Professionally, Doug is AV-rated (the highest lawyer rating) and was a business and commercial trial lawyer for 22 years before turning to peacemaking. He is a Fellow of the International Academy of Mediators, a Fellow of the American College of Civil Trial Mediators and on the American Arbitration Association panel of mediators and arbitrators. He passionate about pragmatic, effective ways for people to find inner and outer peace in everyday conflicts.

For more information visit http://www.LawyerToPeacemaker.com

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