Tim Brunson DCH

Welcome to The International Hypnosis Research Institute Web site. Our intention is to support and promote the further worldwide integration of comprehensive evidence-based research and clinical hypnotherapy with mainstream mental health, medicine, and coaching. We do so by disseminating, supporting, and conducting research, providing professional level education, advocating increased level of practitioner competency, and supporting the viability and success of clinical practitioners. Although currently over 80% of our membership is comprised of mental health practitioners, we fully recognize the role, support, involvement, and needs of those in the medical and coaching fields. This site is not intended as a source of medical or psychological advice. Tim Brunson, PhD

Multiecho coarse voxel acquisition for neurofeedback fMRI.

"Real-time" functional magnetic resonance imaging is starting to be used in neurofeedback applications, enabling individuals to regulate their brain activity for therapeutic purposes. These applications use two-dimensional multislice echo planar or spiral readouts to image the entire brain volume, often with a much smaller region of interest within the brain monitored for feedback purposes. Given that such brain activity should be sampled rapidly, it is worthwhile considering alternative functional magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences that trade spatial resolution for temporal resolution. We developed a prototype sequence localizing a column of magnetization by outer volume saturation, from which densely sampled transverse relaxation time decays are obtained at coarse voxel locations using an asymmetric gradient echo train. For 5×20×20 mm3 voxels, 256 echoes are sampled at ~1 msec and then combined in weighted summation to increase functional magnetic resonance imaging signal contrast. This multiecho coarse voxel pulse sequence is shown experimentally at 1.5 T to provide the same signal contrast to noise ratio as obtained by spiral imaging for a primary motor cortex region of interest, but with potential for enhanced temporal resolution. A neurofeedback experiment also illustrates measurement and calculation of functional magnetic resonance imaging signals within 1 sec, emphasizing the future potential of the approach.

Magn Reson Med. 2011 Mar;65(3):715-24. doi: 10.1002/mrm.22674. Epub 2010 Nov 3. Kuo AY, Chiew M, Tam F, Cunningham C, Graham SJ. Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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