Patients awaiting surgical procedures often experience anxiety in anticipation of events that are uncomfortable, uncertain, and may include a health risk. High levels of anxiety result in negative physiological manifestations. Sedatives are regularly administered before surgery to reduce patient anxiety. However, sedatives often have negative side effects such as drowsiness and respiratory depression, and may interact with anesthetic agents, prolonging patient recovery and discharge. Therefore, increasing attention is being paid to a variety of nonpharmacological interventions for the reduction of preoperative anxiety. Music has been used in different medical fields to meet physiological, psychological, and spiritual needs of patients. It is a relatively inexpensive modality to implement, with low risk of side effects and possible significant benefits. This review was conducted with the intent to educate perianesthesia health care providers regarding the value of music therapy and provide guidelines for implementation, based on a comprehensive review of the literature.
J Perianesth Nurs. 2011 Oct;26(5):323-30. Beccaloni AM.