Non-pharmacological nursing interventions for procedural pain relief in adults with burns
Adult burn patients experience pain during wound care despite pharmacological interventions. Additional nursing interventions are needed to improve pain management. A systematic review was undertaken in order to examine the implications of previous research for evidence based decisions concerning the use of non-pharmacological nursing interventions and for future research. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria and were discussed. The majority of the included studies concerned behavioural nursing interventions and focussed on promotion of psychological comfort. Although 17 studies showed that the intervention had a positive effect on pain outcomes and no adverse effects of the reviewed interventions were reported, the best available evidence was found for active hypnosis, rapid induction analgesia and distraction relaxation. However, in order to reduce methodological limitations, further research is needed before well-founded evidence based decisions for nursing practice can be made. Aspects that seem important for future research, like the type of the intervention, theoretical framework, manner of giving instruction and guidance, cost, outcomes, measurement instruments and data collection points are considered.
Burn Centre, Red Cross Hospital, Vondellaan 13, 1942 LE Beverwijk, The Netherlands; Association of Dutch Burn Centres, Beverwijk, The Netherlands.
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