Tim Brunson DCH

Welcome to The International Hypnosis Research Institute Web site. Our intention is to support and promote the further worldwide integration of comprehensive evidence-based research and clinical hypnotherapy with mainstream mental health, medicine, and coaching. We do so by disseminating, supporting, and conducting research, providing professional level education, advocating increased level of practitioner competency, and supporting the viability and success of clinical practitioners. Although currently over 80% of our membership is comprised of mental health practitioners, we fully recognize the role, support, involvement, and needs of those in the medical and coaching fields. This site is not intended as a source of medical or psychological advice. Tim Brunson, PhD

Hypnotic Depth During Hypnosis for Anaesthesia

To study the effects of S-ketamine on the EEG and to investigate whether spectral entropy of the EEG can be used to assess the depth of hypnosis during S-ketamine anesthesia. METHODS: The effects of sub-anesthetic (159 (21); mean (SD) ng/ml) and anesthetic (1,959 (442) ng/ml) serum concentrations of S-ketamine on state entropy (SE), response entropy (RE) and classical EEG spectral power variables (recorded using the Entropy Module, GE Healthcare, Helsinki, Finland) were studied in 8 healthy males. These EEG data were compared with EEG recordings from 6 matching subjects anesthetized with propofol. RESULTS: The entropy values decreased from the baseline SE 85 (3) and RE 96 (3) to SE 55 (18) and RE 72 (17) during S-ketamine anesthesia but both inter- and intra-individual variation of entropy indices was wide and their specificity to indicate unconsciousness was poor. Propofol induced more pronounced increase in delta power (P<0.02) than S-ketamine, whereas anesthetic S-ketamine induced more high frequency EEG activity in the gamma band (P<0.001). Relative power of 20-70 Hz EEG activity was associated with high SE (P=0.02) and RE (P=0.03) values during S-ketamine anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: These differences in low and high frequency EEG power bands probably explain why entropy monitor, while adequate for propofol, is not suitable for assessing the depth of S-ketamine anesthesia. SIGNIFICANCE: The entropy monitor is not adequate for monitoring S-ketamine-induced hypnosis.

Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, P.O. Box 52, FIN-20521 Turku, Finland. anu.maksimow@utu.fi

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