Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2010 Oct;58(4):367-82. Tobis IP, Kihlstrom JF. University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA.
Welcome to The International Hypnosis Research Institute Web site. Our intention is to provide quality information to clinicians and the general public concerning hypnosis, hypnotherapy, and other mind/body modalities. We intend to expand our coverage to include such topics as Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), energy psychology and medicine, and other related topics. While our intention is to provide quality information derived from valid sources, including peer reviewed literature concerning significant research, this site is not presented as a source of medical or psychological advice. Clinicians wishing to expand their scope of practice or protocols based upon presented information should perform due diligence prior to use. It is our sincere hope to stimulate interest in these topics and to contribute to the evolution of the science of hypnosis. -- Tim Brunson, PhD
Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2010 Oct;58(4):367-82. Tobis IP, Kihlstrom JF. University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA.
This preliminary study explored the relationship between imagery vividness before and during a hypnotic phenomenological assessment procedure, the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory-Hypnotic Assessment Procedure (PCI-HAP), while also assessing trance (hypnoidal) state effects and several other variables. The PCI-HAP allows the assessment of trance state effects associated with hypnotism to be quantified and statistically assessed. The 102 subjects completed the PCI-HAP along with several other questionnaire items. Correlational and regression analyses suggested that imagery vividness during hypnotism (hypnotic imagoic suggestibility) was predicted by combined imagery vividness before hypnotism and trance (altered) state effects during hypnotism. When measuring several additional variables, imagery vividness during hypnotism was found to be a function of self-reported hypnotic depth and additional other variables. The usefulness of these results for better understanding imagery vividness before and during hypnotism is discussed.
Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2010 Oct;58(4):383-416. Pekala RJ, Maurer R, Kumar VK, Elliott-Carter N, Mullen K. Coatesville Veterans Administration Medical Center, Coatesville, Pennsylvania 19320, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2010 Oct;58(4):433-43 Siuta J. Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland. email@example.com
The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and viability of hypnosis before and during a gastrointestinal endoscopy. Six Gastroscopies and 22 colonoscopies were carried out under hypnosis in a group of patients. The patients ranged in age from 20 and 67 years and have a history of previously incomplete and poorly tolerated examinations or expressed an active demand for sedation. For 6 of the patients who underwent a gastroscopy under hypnosis, the procedure was successfully completed, reaching the second part of the duodenum without difficulty for the endoscopist. Colonoscopy of the cecum was completed in 19 of 20 patients. All patients, except 1, considered their tolerance level as "good." Hypnosis facilitated an adequate endoscopy intervention without any discomfort in 85% of the cases examined. Avoidance of anaesthesia reduces risk to the patient. Hence, hypnosis for gastrointestinal endoscopy appears to provide a promising strategy.
Am J Clin Hypn. 2010 Oct;53(2):101-7. Domínguez-Ortega L, Rodríguez-Muñoz S. Internal Medicine Department, Sleep and Hypnosis Unit, Hospital 12 de Octubre. firstname.lastname@example.org
Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2004 Apr;52(2):159-87. Raz A, Marinoff GP, Zephrani ZR, Schweizer HR, Posner MI. Columbia University and New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Psychiatry, New York 10032, USA. email@example.com
Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2004 Apr;52(2):188-97. Bryant RA, Mallard D. School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a self-hypnosis protocol with chronic drug and alcohol patients in increasing self-esteem, improving affect, and preventing relapse against a control, a transtheoretical cognitive-behavioral (TCB), and a stress management (attention-placebo) group. Participants were 261 veterans admitted to Substance Abuse Residential Rehabilitation Treatment Programs (SARRTPs). Participants were assessed pre- and postintervention, and at 7-week follow-up. Relapse rates did not significantly differ across the 4 groups at follow-up; 87% of those contacted reported abstinence. At follow-up, the participants in the 3 treatment conditions were asked how often they practiced the intervention materials provided them. Practicing and minimal-practicing participants were compared against the control group for each of the 3 interventions via MANOVAs/ANOVAs. Results revealed a significant Time by Groups interaction for the hypnosis intervention, with individuals who played the self-hypnosis audiotapes "at least 3 to 5 times a week" at 7-week follow-up reporting the highest levels of self-esteem and serenity, and the least anger/impulsivity, in comparison to the minimal-practice and control groups. No significant effects were found for the transtheoretical or stress management interventions. Regression analyses predicted almost two-thirds of the variance of who relapsed and who did not in the hypnosis intervention group. Hypnotic susceptibility predicted who practiced the self-hypnosis audiotapes. The results suggest that hypnosis can be a useful adjunct in helping chronic substance abuse individuals with their reported self-esteem, serenity, and anger/impulsivity.
Am J Clin Hypn. 2004 Apr;46(4):281-97. Pekala RJ, Maurer R, Kumar VK, Elliott NC, Masten E, Moon E, Salinger M. Biofeedback Clinic (116B), Coatesville VA Medical Center, Coatesville, PA 19320-2096, USA. Ronald.Pekala@med.va.gov
Am J Clin Hypn. 2004 Apr;46(4):299-312. Mehl-Madrona LE. Program in Integrative Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine, 1249 N. Mountain St., Tucson, AZ 85719, USA. email@example.com
Children who suffer from cancer have to endure regular, painful medical procedures that are associated with a considerable degree of psychosocial distress. Hypnosis has been successfully employed in the management of pain and distress in the adult population, but is not well studied in pediatric populations. This review systematically evaluates the systematic research conducted in the field of procedure-related pain management in pediatric oncology within the context of a nationally agreed framework for the assessment of research evidence. It is concluded that there is not currently enough robust research evidence to recommend that hypnosis should form part of best practice guidelines for the management of procedure-related pain in pediatric oncology. However, there is sufficient evidence to justify larger-scale, appropriately controlled studies. A number of recommendations are made regarding future research.
J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2004 Jun;25(3):207-13. Wild MR, Espie CA. Section of Psychological Medicine, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Lessons learned from a somatic treatment session that significantly reduced severe chronic hip and leg pain
by Erik Peper, PhD, and Annette Booiman, MRT
After experiencing your guided exercises on the gym floor, I slept comfortably and without any pain for the first time in four years. This morning when I went grocery shopping, I could walk straight with a normal stride and again without pain. I feel great. --Paul Maassen
The rapid successful resolution of pain occurred as the result of a spontaneous teaching moment with a person in the gym. This success is not just a case of magical/spontaneous healing but the integration of multiple factors that promote healing and underlie somatic awareness practices and successful biofeedback training. In this clinical note, we describe how the educational treatment began, the educational/clinical coaching sequence, and factors that therapists may want to consider in their treatment.
To read the full article, click here.
An argument for the significance of a qualitative research approach to hypnotic experiencing and a perceptually oriented view of hypnosis is presented with hypnosis framed in phenomenological, humanistic, and perceptual terms. An outline of threads of thought in Popper's writings are consistent with such a perspective. Qualitative approaches are noted and support for theoretical discussions leading to deeper understanding of issues of hypnotic experiencing, such as unconscious processes, nonlinear experiences, and researchers' countertransference are examined. Some limitations of current quantitative approaches to examining hypnotic experiencing and myths about qualitative research are discussed.
Psychol Rep. 2004 Jun;94(3 Pt 1):955-66. Woodard FJ. Woodard Hypnosis and Research, Inc., Milford, New Hampshire, USA.
by Erik Peper, Annette Booiman, Marie Tallard, and Naoki Takebayashi
Surface electromyographic biofeedback to optimize performance in daily life: Improving physical fitness and health at the worksite
Muscle pain is the primary cause of discomfort for more than 30% of patients who visit their primary physicians with severe pain. These pains are often caused by dysponesis which is unaware misdirected muscle efforts not necessary for task performances. It can consist of 1) excessively tightening muscles that are used for the task performance, 2) tightening muscles not necessary for the task performance (inappropriate co-contractions), 3) not relaxing muscles after the task has been completed, or 4) not relaxing muscles momentarily during task performance to allow for ongoing regeneration (surface electromyograhic gaps/micro-breaks).These chronic covert muscle tensions are a significant co-factor in the etiology, maintenance and progression of many disorders such as headaches, backaches, joint pain, repetitive strain injuries, myalgias, etc. Dysponesis can be identified with surface electromyographic (SEMG) feedback. The benefits of using SEMG to reduce dysponesis through awareness and training are illustrated by two clinical case examples: 1) to improve health at work when packing apples and 2) to enhance performance while working out in the gym on an elliptical exercise machine. As documented by the SEMG recorded from the upper trapezius and/or forearm flexors, the reduction of misdirected muscle efforts decreased the neck and shoulder pains at work and at home and enhanced performance on an elliptical exercise machine. SEMG is a useful clinical tool to assess, monitor, provide feedback to the therapist and client, document muscle dysponesis, and teach clients awareness and voluntary control to reduce their dysponesis and improve health.
Click here to read the full article.
The effects of hypnosis/therapeutic suggestion in connection with intravenous sedation and surgery have been described in many clinical publications; however, few randomized, controlled, and blind studies have been performed in the outpatient area. This study aimed to evaluate the use of hypnosis/therapeutic suggestion as an adjunct to intravenous (IV) sedation in patients having 3rd molar removal in an outpatient setting. The patients were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 46) or control (n = 54) group. The treatment group listened to a rapid conversational induction and therapeutic suggestions via headphones throughout the entire surgical procedure along with a standard sedation dose of intravenous anesthetic. The control group listened to only music without any hypnotic intervention. Intraoperative Propofol administration, patient postoperative pain ratings, and postoperative prescription pain reliever consumption were all significantly reduced in the treatment compared to the control group. Implications of these results are discussed.
Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2010 Jan;58(1):21-38. Mackey EF. Department of Nursing, West Chester, University of Pennsylvania, 855 S. New Street, West Chester, PA 19348, USA. email@example.com
Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2010 Jan;58(1):53-68. Tan G, Fukui T, Jensen MP, Thornby J, Waldman KL. Anesthesiology Pain Program, Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, 2002 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030, USA. TAN.GABRIEL@va.gov
This descriptive study evaluates the hypnoanalgesic experience's effect on participants' hypnotizability and opinions about hypnosis and identifies factors associated with hypnotizability. Hypnotizability was assessed using the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form A in 290 women 1 month after their participation in a randomized clinical trial evaluating hypnotic intervention for pain/anxiety versus standard care during pregnancy termination. Opinions were collected before and after the intervention. The regression model describing hypnotizability (F = 13.55; p < .0001; R(2) = 0.20) retained 5 variables but not the intervention group. The variable explaining most of total variance (62.9%) was the level of perceived automaticity/involuntariness. Opinions about hypnosis were modified by the hypnotic experience compared to standard care but were not associated with hypnotizability. Exposure to hypnoanalgesia did not influence hypnotizability but modifies significantly the opinions about hypnosis. Consistent with previous findings, perceived automaticity appears to best predict hypnotizability.
Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2010 Jan;58(1):82-101. Dufresne A, Rainville P, Dodin S, Barré P, Masse B, Verreault R, Marc I. Laval University, Quebec City, Canada.
Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2010 Jan;58(1):102-21. Barabasz A, Higley L, Christensen C, Barabasz M. Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99163, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Significant data to suggest the need for more appropriate precautions for volunteers participating in stage hypnosis is presented. This paper is a case report of a soldier previously injured in battle who, due to participating in stage hypnosis one year after his injury, experienced a dissociative episode wherein post-traumatic stress symptoms were prominent. During this episode, which lasted over three hours, the service member assaulted an acquaintance, subsequently believed he was a prisoner of war, experienced amnesia for some of the events, and was eventually psychiatrically hospitalized. The diagnosis of acute psychotic reaction was rendered. Fortunately for this service member, upon his return to his treating hospital center, his primary medical team made an appropriate referral. Psychotherapeutic treatment allowed this individual to integrate his traumatic experiences, gain control and understanding of his behavior, and extinguish his pain and suffering, returning to his successful career.
Am J Clin Hypn. 2010 Jan;52(3):183-8. Wain HJ, Dailey J. Dept. of Psychiatry, Walter Reed Medical Center, 6900 Georgia Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20307-5001, USA. email@example.com
Rev Med Suisse. 2010 Feb 17;6(236):330-3. Smaga D, Cheseaux N, Forster A, Colombo S, Rentsch D, de Tonnac N. HUG, Département de psychiatrie, Avenue Krieg 15, 1208 Genève. firstname.lastname@example.org
Conscious Cogn. 2010 Feb 24. Oakley DA, Halligan PW. Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK; School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Tower Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT, UK.
Soc Work Health Care. 2010 Mar;49(3):245-62. Snow A, Warbet R. The Mount Sinai Medical Center, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA. Alison.Snow@mountsinai.org
The role of alterations in mismatch negativity (MMN) in hypnosis was examined by recording MMN of the auditory ERP at frontal (F3, Fz, and F4) and mastoid (M1 and M2) placements. Frontal MMN is believed to reflect activity in right anterior cortical generators, whereas MMN at mastoid leads reflects generators located bilaterally in the temporal auditory cortex. MMN recordings were obtained in 11 low and 12 high hypnotically susceptible participants in three successive blocks; pre-hypnosis, hypnosis and post-hypnosis. Frontal (but not temporal) MMN showed a significant quadratic trend across testing conditions. It increased during hypnosis and then dropped post-hypnosis for both susceptibility groups. Linear trends for frontal and temporal MMN showed directly opposite patterns of change in the interaction between hypnotic susceptibility and testing blocks. Frontal MMN built up linearly over the test blocks in high relative to low susceptibility participants. Temporal MMN showed the reverse pattern and increased linearly across test conditions in those with low relative to high hypnotic susceptibility.
Brain Res Bull. 2005 Oct 30;67(4):298-303. Jamieson GA, Dwivedi P, Gruzelier JH. Imperial College London, UK. email@example.com
J Trauma Dissociation. 2006;7(4):91-113. Holmes EA, Oakley DA, Stuart AD, Brewin CR. Royal Society Dorothy Hodgkin Fellow, University of Oxford, Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Am J Clin Hypn. 2003 Oct;46(2):139-45. Graham KR, Marra LC, Rudski JM. Muhlenberg College, Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA. email@example.com
Conscious Cogn. 2009 Dec;18(4):848-55. Epub 2009 Sep 25. McGeown WJ, Mazzoni G, Venneri A, Kirsch I. Department of Psychology, University of Hull, UK.
Conscious Cogn. 2009 Dec;18(4):837-47. Epub 2009 Aug 25. Dienes Z, Brown E, Hutton S, Kirsch I, Mazzoni G, Wright DB. School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2009 Dec;11(6):443-50. Thieme K, Gracely RH. Center for Neurosensory Disorders, University of North Carolina, CB#7280, 3330 Thurston Building, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. email@example.com
Conscious Cogn. 2009 Nov 7. Naish PL. Dept. of Psychology, The Open University, Briggs Building, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, United Kingdom.
Burns. 2009 Oct 30. Berger MM, Davadant M, Marin C, Wasserfallen JB, Pinget C, Maravic P, Koch N, Raffoul W, Chiolero RL. Service of Intensive Care Medicine & Burns Centre, University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry. 2009 Oct 28:1-31. Cox RE, Barnier AJ. Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
OBJECTIVES:Gut-directed hypnotherapy (HT) has recently been shown to be highly effective in treating children with functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study was conducted to determine the extent to which this treatment success is because of an improvement in rectal sensitivity.METHODS:A total of 46 patients (aged 8-18 years) with FAP (n=28) or IBS (n=18) were randomized to either 12 weeks of standard medical therapy (SMT) or HT. To assess rectal sensitivity, a pressure-controlled intermittent distension protocol (barostat) was performed before and after the therapy.RESULTS:Rectal sensitivity scores changed in SMT patients from 15.1+/-7.3 mm Hg at baseline to 18.6+/-8.5 mm Hg after 12 weeks of treatment (P=0.09) and in HT patients from 17.0+/-9.2 mm Hg to 22.5+/-10.1 mm Hg (P=0.09). The number of patients with rectal hypersensitivity decreased from 6 of 18 to 0 of 18 in the HT group (P=0.04) vs. 6 of 20 to 4 of 20 in the SMT group (P=0.67). No relationship was established between treatment success and rectal pain thresholds. Rectal sensitivity scores at baseline were not correlated with intensity, frequency, or duration of abdominal pain.CONCLUSIONS:Clinical success achieved with HT cannot be explained by improvement in rectal sensitivity. Furthermore, no association could be found between rectal barostat findings and clinical symptoms in children with FAP or IBS. Further studies are necessary to shed more light on both the role of rectal sensitivity in pediatric FAP and IBS and the mechanisms by which hypnotherapy results in improvement of clinical symptoms.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 27 October 2009; doi:10.1038/ajg.2009.613.
Am J Gastroenterol. 2009 Oct 27. Vlieger AM, van den Berg MM, Menko-Frankenhuis C, Bongers ME, Tromp E, Benninga MA. Department of Pediatrics, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.
Methods For each year from 2005 through 2020, we forecasted life expectancy and quality-adjusted life expectancy for a representative 18-year-old, assuming a continuation of past trends in smoking (based on data from the National Health Interview Survey for 1978 through 1979, 1990 through 1991, 1999 through 2001, and 2004 through 2006) and past trends in body-mass index (BMI) (based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1971 through 1975, 1988 through 1994, 1999 through 2002, and 2003 through 2006). The 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was used to examine the effects of smoking and BMI on health-related quality of life.
Results The negative effects of increasing BMI overwhelmed the positive effects of declines in smoking in multiple scenarios. In the base case, increases in the remaining life expectancy of a typical 18-year-old are held back by 0.71 years or 0.91 quality-adjusted years between 2005 and 2020. If all U.S. adults became nonsmokers of normal weight by 2020, we forecast that the life expectancy of an 18-year-old would increase by 3.76 life-years or 5.16 quality-adjusted years.
Conclusions If past obesity trends continue unchecked, the negative effects on the health of the U.S. population will increasingly outweigh the positive effects gained from declining smoking rates. Failure to address continued increases in obesity could result in an erosion of the pattern of steady gains in health observed since early in the 20th century.
Susan T. Stewart, Ph.D., David M. Cutler, Ph.D., and Allison B. Rosen, M.D., Sc.D. From the Harvard University Interfaculty Program for Health Systems Improvement, Boston (S.T.S.); the Department of Economics, Harvard University (D.M.C.), and the National Bureau of Economic Research (S.T.S., D.M.C., A.B.R.) -- both in Cambridge, MA; and the Departments of Internal Medicine and Health Management and Policy, University of Michigan Schools of Medicine and Public Health, Ann Arbor (A.B.R.).
Am J Clin Hypn. 2009 Oct;52(2):123-31. Iglesias A, Iglesias A. firstname.lastname@example.org
The Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP) is a brief, standardized assessment of hypnotizability which takes 5-10 minutes to administer. The Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale for Adults (SHCS:A) is a different clinical measure of hypnotizability that takes about 20-25 minutes to administer. Although both scales purport to measure the same thing, they were based on different theories of hypnosis and constructed using different psychometric techniques. The present investigation is a concurrent validation study comparing scores on the two instruments in a sample of 24 inpatients. The correlation between the SHCS:A and HIP Induction score was 0.41 (p < .01). However, the Eye Roll Sign (ERS) did not correlate significantly with either the SHCS:A (.04, ns) or the HIP-IND score (-.05, ns). These results indicate that while scores on the HIP and SHCS:A are significantly correlated the inter-correlations are not high enough to consider them as interchangeable measures. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.
Am J Clin Hypn. 2009 Oct;52(2):89-93. Gritzalis N, Oster M, Frischholz EJ. John J. Madden Mental Health Center, Hines, IL 60141-7000, USA. email@example.com
Cogn Process. 2009 Aug;10(3):199-207. Epub 2009 Jul 1. Hünefeldt T, Rossi-Arnaud C, Furia A. Department of Psychology, University of Rome La Sapienza, Via dei Marsi 78, 00185, Rome, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
Castellani E, D'Alessandro L, Sebastiani L. Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Pisa, Via S. Zeno 31, 56127 Pisa, Italy.
The subject a physically fit athletic male 47 suffered a stroke while jogging when he was 41. The resulting paralysis was loss of use of left side. After 4 years of conventional therapy and some holistic therapy he regained a limited 25% use of his left side. It appeared the limits of this therapy for him had been reached with little or no improvement for the next 2.8 years.
Prior to hypnotherapy:
Visual observations; Subject's left foot turned out 45 degrees, Subject's left knee not flexing during walking with compensating movement transferred to hip. Subject's Left arm and hand had only about 3% usage with little more than the ability to make fingers move as a group and not independently. Also the left arm held to his chest with hand in a claw shape typical of many stroke sufferers. Visual muscle spasms in left leg. Subject's physical limitations in mobility were inability to negotiate steps higher that 8 inches(20 cm) or walking more that 150 feet (50 meters) without severe muscle spasms.
During the perioperative period, patients were randomly assigned to one of 3 interventions: guided imagery audiotapes (GI), music audiotapes (MU), or standard care (C), and outcome measures were evaluated.