Tim Brunson DCH

Welcome to The International Hypnosis Research Institute Web site. Our intention is to support and promote the further worldwide integration of comprehensive evidence-based research and clinical hypnotherapy with mainstream mental health, medicine, and coaching. We do so by disseminating, supporting, and conducting research, providing professional level education, advocating increased level of practitioner competency, and supporting the viability and success of clinical practitioners. Although currently over 80% of our membership is comprised of mental health practitioners, we fully recognize the role, support, involvement, and needs of those in the medical and coaching fields. This site is not intended as a source of medical or psychological advice. -- Tim Brunson, PhD

Use of Chinese medicine by cancer patients: a review of surveys.

ABSTRACT: Chinese medicine has been used to treat a variety of cancer-related conditions. This study aims to examine the prevalence and patterns of Chinese medicine usage by cancer patients. We reviewed articles written in English and found only the Chinese medicine usage from the studies on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Seventy four (74) out of 81 articles reported rates of CAM usage ranging from 2.6 to 100%. Acupuncture was reported in 71 out of 81 studies. Other less commonly reported modalities included Qigong (n=17), Chinese herbal medicine (n=11), Taichi (n=10), acupressure (n=6), moxibustion (n=2), Chinese dietary therapy (n=1), Chinese massage (n=1), cupping (n=1) and other Chinese medicine modalities (n=19). This review also found important limitations of the English language articles on CAM usage in cancer patients. Our results show that Chinese medicine, in particular Chinese herbal medicine, is commonly used by cancer patients. Further research is warranted to include studies not written in English.

Chin Med. 2011 Jun 9;6(1):22. Carmady B, Smith CA.

Potential role of metabolomics apporoaches in the area of traditional Chinese medicine...

Full title: Potential role of metabolomics apporoaches in the area of traditional Chinese medicine: As pillars of the bridge between Chinese and Western medicine.

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a holistic approach to health that attempts to bring the body, mind and spirit into harmony. Entering 21st century, TCM is getting more and more popular in the whole world for improving health condition of human beings and preventing or healing diseases, especially shows great advantages in early intervention, combination therapies and personalized medicine, etc. However, like almost all other ethnopharmacology, TCM also faces severe challenges and suffers from insufficient modern research owing to lack of scientific and technologic approaches, restricts the development of TCM in the world. Fortunately, a novel analytical technique, metabolomics (or metabonomics), adopts a 'top-down' strategy to reflect the function of organisms from terminal symptoms of metabolic network and understand metabolic changes of a complete system caused by interventions in holistic context. Its property consists with the holistic thinking of TCM, may beneficially provide an opportunity to scientifically express the meaning of evidence-based Chinese medicine, such as Chinese medicine syndromes (CMS), preventive treatment, action of Chinese medicine, Chinese medical formulae (CMF) and acupuncture efficacy. This review summarizes potential applications of robust metabolomics apporoaches in the area of traditional oriental medicine, and highlights the key role of metabolomics to resolve special TCM issues.

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2011 Jul 15;55(5):859-68. Epub 2011 Feb 26. Wang X, Sun H, Zhang A, Sun W, Wang P, Wang Z. National TCM Key Lab of Serum Pharmacochemistry, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Heping Road 24, Harbin 150040, China.

Clinical observations on curative effect of TCM massage on dyssomnia of infants.

OBJECTIVE: To observe the curative effect of TCM massage on difficulty in falling asleep, waking during night and other sleep disorder of infants.

METHODS: The 51 outpatients were treated by basic recipe for massage treatment and modified recipe according to syndromes.

RESULTS: The total Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) score 3.2800 +/- 1.5784 after treatment is lower than 9.2400 +/- 1.4286 before treatment (P < 0.01), there is statistical difference in AIS scores before and after treatment.

CONCLUSION: TCM massage can remarkably improve sleep condition of infants with dyssomnia.

J Tradit Chin Med. 2010 Dec;30(4):299-301. Dong HY, Wang W. Acupuncture and Moxibustion College of Tianjin TCM University, Tianjin 300193, China.

Postmarketing herbs clinical evaluation should concern about re-evaluating symptoms

Re-evaluation of premarketing medicine is a important supplementary of clinical and elementary research. It is a basement that establish the medicine administration supervisition , found and integrity postmarketing washing out mechanism and define reasonable using drug. After drug marketing, we must not only concern on the re-evaluation of herbs security but also focus on evaluating herbs suitable symptom, as well as its dosage and course of treatment, ect. The re-evaluation of symptoms were seen as the core and feature of traditional Chinese medicine's clinical evaluation. It is also seen as hot spot and difficulty of the research . This article try to focus on simply illustrating the necessity and research thinking of re-evaluation symptoms of postmarketing herbs. So we can define the re-evaluation of postmarketing drug's objection, method, and basement. It will provide beneficial experience and reference to re-evaluation symptom of marketed herbs.

He W, Xie Y, Wang Y. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2010 Jun;35(11):1498-500. Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China. hewei7826@yahoo.com.cn

Establishment of a Novel Model for Studying the Effects of Extracts of Chinese Herb Medicine.....

Full Title Establishment of a Novel Model for Studying the Effects of Extracts of Chinese Herb Medicine on Human Type II 5alpha-Reductase in Vitro.

Human steroid 5alpha-reductase type II (hSRD5A2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) play important roles in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The aim of our study was to establish a novel model to investigate the inhibitory effects of extracts and compounds of Chinese herb medicine on hSRD5A2. The gene, hSRD5A2, was artificially synthesized and cloned into pcDNA3.1(+) vector, which was transfected into CHO cells by liposome. Transfected cells were screened through G418 and MTX. The expressed protein of hSRD5A2 by cells was purified and detected by western blotting. A minim reactive system comprising hSRD5A2 and testosterone (T) as substrate together with NADPH as hydrogen donor was established for screening inhibitors of hSRD5A2. The reaction system was optimized in the concentrations of T, NADPH, and hSRD5A2 and reaction temperature, time, and activity of hSRD5A2 were determined by the production of DHT. Furthermore, we screened some extracts and compounds of Chinese herb medicine using this model. The concentrations of T, NADPH, and hSRD5A2 were 0.02 microM, 0.8 mM, and 0.05 U/microl, respectively, in the model; maximum activity of hSRD5A2 was achieved at 37 degrees C and 60 min reaction, and mangiferin had significant inhibitory effect on the activity of hSRD5A2. The model in this study is convenient and reliable for screening and evaluation of inhibitors of hSRD5A2; mangiferin may be a potential medicine for the treatment of BPH.

Wang X, Liao J, Yin D, Zhan F, Dai S, Xie G, Sang X. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2010 Sep;130(9):1207-14. Department of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

Full Title: Traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a general review

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is difficult to cure. Many methods have been used for its treatment, among which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been considered as an important strategy. All of the three parts of TCM: Chinese herbs, acupuncture, and massage have been reported with varying degrees of therapeutic effects on RA. Also the mechanism exploration is under process. Many effective ingredients of anti-rheumatic Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit RA development and some of the effective ingredients have been verified. Furthermore, greatly enhanced life quality of RA patients was obtained using acupuncture and massage to relieve pain, expand joint motion and modulate emotion which mainly correlated with the possible modulation of immune system, nerve system, endocrine system, etc. Thus, a systemic review on the therapeutic effect of TCM on RA is necessary. In our paper, the current status of TCM application in the clinic for the therapy of RA was summarized accompanied with the related mechanism exploration using modern test facilities.

Rheumatol Int. 2010 Apr;30(6):713-8. Epub 2010 Mar 5. Zhang P, Li J, Han Y, Yu XW, Qin L. The Translational Medicine R&D Center, Shen Zhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shen Zhen, GuangDong Province, China. superzhangpeng@sina.com

The root and development of otorhinolaryngology in traditional Chinese medicine

There is an increasing trend in society to look beyond conventional medicine to find answers to problems in health. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the most popular alternative, complementary therapies worldwide. It is becoming a popular alternative in otorhinolaryngology where its use in the treatment of sinusitis, tinnitus, deafness and Meniere's disease is growing. Despite the general awareness of TCM, the literature relating specifically to otorhinolaryngology is relatively scarce. In this review, we have traced the origin and development of otorhinolaryngology with respect to TCM and have provided a few interesting insights into otorhinolaryngology, as it used to be practised. Archaeological sources have shown that diseases affecting the ear, nose and throat were of medical concern as early as the 18th century BC. The first practising otorhinolaryngologist can be traced back to the 5th century BC. Acupuncture, moxibustion, herbal therapy and massage were amongst his treatments. Otorhinolaryngology was recognised as a major specialty when formal medical education began in the 7th century AD. Therapeutic measures since then expanded to include exercise, food therapy and surgery. References to using oesophageal speech as a substitute voice generator, the use of copper wire to excise nasal polyps, procedures for removal of sharp foreign bodies in the oropharynx, repair of lacerated trachea and treatment of cancer of lips can be found in historical notes. In conclusion, from its primitive roots, TCM has developed into a distinct branch of health care system in China today that works alongside Western medicine.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009 Sep;266(9):1353-9. Epub 2009 Jul 14. Yap L, Pothula VB, Warner J, Akhtar S, Yates E. Royal Albert Edward Infirmary, Wigan, UK. leesien@tiscali.co.uk

Prescriptions of Chinese Herbal Medicines for Insomnia in Taiwan during 2002.

Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16 134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29 801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female:male = 1.94:1). There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Apr 1. Chen FP, Jong MS, Chen YC, Kung YY, Chen TJ, Chen FJ, Hwang SJ. Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, No. 201, Sec. 2, Shih-Pai Road, Taipei 112, Taiwan, ROC. sjhwang@vghtpe.gov.tw.

Chinese herbal medicine for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Age Associated Memory Impairment.

This review assesses the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Age Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI). Electronic searches of English and Chinese databases and hand searches of Chinese journal holdings were conducted. Randomised controlled trials comparing orally administered CHM with placebo, no intervention or other therapy were considered. Ginkgo biloba was excluded. Ten trials met inclusion criteria. Eight different CHM were investigated. Methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad scale and five studies scored three or above. Two studies compared CHM with placebo and eight with another intervention. This review found an overall benefit on some outcome measures for the eight CHMs involved in the 10 RCTs but methodological and data reporting issues were evident. Meta-analysis of three studies found the effects of the CHMs were at least equivalent to piracetam on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. No severe adverse events were reported.

Biogerontology. 2009 Apr;10(2):109-23. May BH, Yang AW, Zhang AL, Owens MD, Bennett L, Head R, Cobiac L, Li CG, Hugel H, Story DF, Xue CC. WHO Collaborating Centre for Traditional Medicine, Division of Chinese Medicine, School of Health Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC, 3083, Australia.

Factor analysis of traditional Chinese medicine syndromes in 815 patients with unstable angina.

Objective: To explore the laws of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes in unstable angina, and to establish the preliminary diagnostic criteria for TCM syndromes.Methods: Multi-center prospective research on TCM syndromes in 815 cases of unstable angina was done with the nonlinear dimension reduction by factor analysis.Results: There were five extracted factors in factor analysis: F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5. F1 was yin deficiency of heart and kidney, F2 was deficiency of both heart and spleen, F3 was intermingled phlegm and blood stasis, F4 was qi deficiency and blood stasis, and F5 was yang deficiency and coagulated cold. Qi deficiency and blood stasis (F4) syndrome accounted for the maximum proportion. The diagnostic criteria for TCM syndromes were preliminarily and respectively established.Conclusion: Qi deficiency and blood stasis is the key factor of pathogenesis. The factor analysis can help us classify traditional Chinese medicine syndromes and establish the preliminary diagnostic criteria.

Wang J, He QY, Li HX, Fang YT. Department of Cardiology, Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053, China; E-mail: heqingyongg@sohu.com. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2008 Aug;6(8):788-92.

A pilot whole systems clinical trial of traditional chinese medicine and naturopathic medicine.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility and acceptability of studying whole systems of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Naturopathic medicine (NM) in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and to determine whether there is indication to support further research. DESIGN: A pilot study using a randomized controlled clinical trial design of whole system TCM and NM versus state-of-the-art specialty care (SC). SETTING/LOCATION: Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW), and practitioner offices in Portland, Oregon. SUBJECTS: One hundred and sixty (160) women 25-55 years of age attending a KPNW TMD specialty clinic. INTERVENTIONS: Whole system TCM and NM, and KPNW TMD clinic SC; the intervention protocols were designed to model the individually tailored type of community care offered in alternative medicine practices in Portland and in the KPNW TMD clinic, using protocols that enhanced similarities among practitioners within each system and permitted full descriptions of the treatments provided. OUTCOME MEASURES: TMD was ascertained using the Research Diagnostic Criteria/TMD; outcomes were self-reported worst and average facial pain and interference with activities (scaled 0-10 where 10 is worst). RESULTS: Of 948 consecutive eligible patients, 160 were randomized to one of three arms; 128 provided endpoint data. TCM and NM demonstrated significantly greater in-treatment reductions for worst facial pain compared to SC (adjusted regression analysis; higher negative values indicate greater improvement, = -1.11 +/- 0.43, p = 0.010 and -1.02 +/- 0.45, p = 0.025 for TCM and NM, respectively, compared to SC) and at 3 months post-treatment (-1.07 +/- 0.51, p = 0.037 and -1.27 +/- 0.54, p = 0.019 for TCM and NM versus SC, respectively). Additionally, TCM provided significantly greater decreases in average pain than SC; NM provided significantly greater decreases than SC or TCM in TMD-related psychosocial interference. CONCLUSIONS: These alternative medicine approaches each resulted in significantly greater reduction of pain and psychosocial interference than SC. Further research on the potential benefits of traditional whole systems of medicine for TMD appears warranted.

Ritenbaugh C, Hammerschlag R, Calabrese C, Mist S, Aickin M, Sutherland E, Leben J, Debar L, Elder C, Dworkin SF. Department of Family and Community Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA. ritenbau@email.arizona.edu J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jun;14(5):475-87.

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