Tim Brunson DCH

Welcome to The International Hypnosis Research Institute Web site. Our intention is to support and promote the further worldwide integration of comprehensive evidence-based research and clinical hypnotherapy with mainstream mental health, medicine, and coaching. We do so by disseminating, supporting, and conducting research, providing professional level education, advocating increased level of practitioner competency, and supporting the viability and success of clinical practitioners. Although currently over 80% of our membership is comprised of mental health practitioners, we fully recognize the role, support, involvement, and needs of those in the medical and coaching fields. This site is not intended as a source of medical or psychological advice. -- Tim Brunson, PhD

Effects of Aerobic Training on Airway Inflammation in Asthmatic Patients.

PURPOSE: There is evidence suggesting that physical activity has anti-inflammatory effects in many chronic diseases; however, the role of exercise in airway inflammation in asthma is poorly understood. We aimed to evaluate the effects of an aerobic training program on eosinophil inflammation (primary aim) and nitric oxide (secondary aim) in patients with moderate or severe persistent asthma.

METHODS: Sixty-eight patients randomly assigned to either control (CG) or aerobic training (TG) groups were studied during the period between medical consultations. Patients in the CG (educational program + breathing exercises; N=34) and TG (educational program + breathing exercises + aerobic training; N=34) were examined twice a week during a three-month period. Before and after the intervention, patients underwent induced sputum, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), pulmonary function and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Asthma symptom-free days were quantified monthly and asthma exacerbation was monitored during three-months of intervention.

RESULTS: At three months, decreases in the total and eosinophil cell counts in induced sputum (p=0.004) and in the levels of FeNO (p=0.009) were observed after intervention only in the TG. The number of asthma symptom-free days and VO2max also significantly improved (p<0.001), and lower asthma exacerbation occurred in the TG (p<0.01). In addition, the TG presented a strong positive relationship between baseline FeNO and eosinophil counts as well as their improvement after training (r=0.77 and r=0.9, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Aerobic training reduces sputum eosinophil and FeNO in patients with moderate or severe asthma, and these benefits were more significant in subjects with higher levels of inflammation. These results suggest that aerobic training might be useful as an adjuvant therapy in asthmatic patients under optimized medical treatment.

Mendes FA, Almeida FM, Cukier A, Stelmach R, Jacob-Filho W, Martins MA, Carvalho CR. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Jun 23. Departments of 1Physical Therapy, 2Medicine, 3Pulmonary and 4Geriatrics, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Can slow breathing exercises improve seizure control in people with refractory epilepsy...

Full Title Can slow breathing exercises improve seizure control in people with refractory epilepsy? A hypothesis.

Studies on various medical conditions have shown that poor health is associated with lower parasympathetic tone. People with epilepsy appear to have decreased parasympathetic tone, with a greater decrease in those with intractable seizures than in those with well-controlled epilepsy. Slow breathing exercises have been shown to increase parasympathetic tone in healthy volunteers. Slow breathing exercises have been shown to improve a number of medical conditions including asthma, hypertension, anxiety states, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We hypothesize that slow breathing exercises in people with epilepsy can lead to an increase in parasympathetic tone and an accompanying reduction in seizure frequency. The slow breathing exercises, probably through baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, and pulmonary stretch receptors, affect cortical activity and hence seizure thresholds. It is also possible that slow breathing exercises might reduce seizure frequency by reducing anxiety. The hypothesis can be tested by employing devices and protocols that have been used to reduce breathing rates and have been shown to improve health outcomes in other medical conditions.

Yuen AW, Sander JW. Epilepsy Behav. 2010 Aug;18(4):331-4. Department of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK. alan@yuen.co.uk

Effects of weightlifting and breathing technique on blood pressure and heart rate.

Weight training is a method commonly used to increase strength. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of breathing technique during weight training on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). After completing a health history questionnaire, 30 subjects (16 men: 21.25 +/- 1.21 years, 180.26 +/- 2.36 cm, 84.31 +/- 19.32 kg; and 14 women: 21.29 +/- 2.37 years, 170.08 +/- 2.15 cm, 137.36 +/- 62.31 kg) were familiarized and tested for an estimated 1 repetition maximum, on the chest press and leg press lifts using each of the 2 breathing techniques, hold breath (HB), and controlled breathing. Lifts were examined using each breathing technique with 1 set of 10 repetitions on separate days. Data were collected during the push phase on average of 3.72 times per set and again at 1 and 5 minutes post lift. Resting, during lift (peak, average); 1-minute and 5-minute post lift BP; and HR values were measured using the NIBP100A noninvasive BP system (Biopac Systems, Inc), for both breathing technique within each lift. The HB technique posted higher but statistically insignificant (p < 0.05) values for systolic BP (p = 0.420), diastolic BP (p = 0.531), and HR (p = 0.713) than the controlled breath technique. The HB technique used in this investigation produced minimal elevations in HR and BP and appears to be safe when performing the chest press and leg press lifts at a moderate resistance. Education on proper weight training techniques can help limit unwanted risks during these exercises.

Lepley AS, Hatzel BM. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 Aug;24(8):2179-83. Movement Science Department, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, Michigan, USA. leple013@umn.edu

Pre-operative inspiratory muscle training preserves postoperative inspiratory muscle...

Full Title Pre-operative inspiratory muscle training preserves postoperative inspiratory muscle strength following major abdominal surgery - a randomised pilot study.

INTRODUCTION The aim of this pilot study was to assess the effect of pre-operative inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory variables in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery.PATIENTS AND METHODS Respiratory muscle strength (maximum inspiratory [MIP] and expiratory [MEP] mouth pressure) and pulmonary functions were measured at least 2 weeks before surgery in 80 patients awaiting major abdominal surgery. Patients were then allocated randomly to one of four groups (Group A, control; Group B, deep breathing exercises; Group C, incentive spirometry; Group D, specific IMT). Patients in groups B, C and D were asked to train twice daily, each session lasting 15 min, for at least 2 weeks up to the day before surgery. Outcome measurements were made immediately pre-operatively and postoperatively.RESULTS In groups A, B and C, MIP did not increase from baseline to pre-operative assessments. In group D, MIP increased from 51.5 cmH2O (median) pre-training to 68.5 cmH2O (median) post-training pre-operatively (P < 0.01). Postoperatively, groups A, B and C showed a fall in MIP from baseline (P < 0.01, P < 0.01) and P = 0.06, respectively). No such significant reduction in postoperative MIP was seen in group D (P = 0.36).CONCLUSIONS Pre-operative specific IMT improves MIP pre-operatively and preserves it postoperatively. Further studies are required to establish if this is associated with reduced pulmonary complications.

Kulkarni S, Fletcher E, McConnell A, Poskitt K, Whyman M. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2010 Jul 26

Effects of using relaxation breathing training to reduce music performance anxiety...

Full Title Effects of using relaxation breathing training to reduce music performance anxiety in 3rd to 6th graders.

Heart rate autonomic responses during deep breathing and walking in hospitalised patients with chronic heart failure.

Objective. To evaluate the acute effect of physiotherapy (deep breathing exercises and walking) on heart rate variability in patients hospitalised with chronic heart failure (CHF). Design. Ten males with CHF (57 +/- 7 years) and 10 healthy controls (59 +/- 9 years) were included. Heart rate and RR intervals were recorded in the following conditions: supine, seated, during deep breathing exercises and during and after walking. Heart rate variability was analysed by linear and non-linear methods (alpha2, Mean HR, rMSSD, SDNN and ApEn). Results. Patients presented significantly lower SDNN (12.4 +/- 4 versus 26 +/- 8 ms), rMSSD (18.2 +/- 16.2 versus 25 +/- 19.5 ms) and ApEn (9.9 +/- 10 versus 16.68 +/- 22.6) during the walking compared to controls (p < 0.05). In addition, mean HR was significantly higher during and after walking for patients with CHF compared to controls (103 +/- 8 versus 80 +/- 2 bpm and 90 +/- 9 versus 68 +/- 2 bpm, respectively). Patients with CHF demonstrated a significant reduction of alpha2 during deep breathing (0.78 +/- 0.1) when compared to the seated position (1.08 +/- 0.1) and walking (1.15 +/- 0.2, p < 0.05). Additionally, rMSSD index increased during deep breathing when compared to walking in both groups. Conclusion. Deep breathing exercises and walking are safe and promote beneficial effects on heart rate variability in patients hospitalised for CHF.

Rossi Caruso FC, Arena R, Mendes RG, Reis MS, Papa V, Borghi-Silva A. Disabil Rehabil. 2010 Aug 23. Cardiopulmonary Physiotherapy Laboratory, Nucleus of Research in Physical Exercise, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, Brazill

Qi Gong's relationship to educational kinesiology: A qualitative approach

This paper qualitatively reviews two complementary therapies; Qi Gong and educational kinesiology (EK). It is being suggested that Qi Gong and EK may be united through a qualitative convergence and a shared underlying concept. The authors hypothesize that a coherent rationale can be formed through this conceptual synthesis and propose that to some extent Qi Gong movements and EK can be considered to work in unison with each other. The logical synthesis of these two therapies is being presented to identify Qi Gong movements with concepts of brain gymnastics and also to explain how this new construct can be developed and implemented into practice. When verified, this hypothesis will allow individuals to better understand Chinese health exercises from the modern science perspective such as neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and psychoneuroimmunology.

J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2010 Jan;14(1):73-9. Posadzki P, Parekh S, O'Driscoll ML, Mucha D. University of East Anglia, United Kingdom. p.posadzki@uea.ac.uk

Evidence of Qi-gong energy and its biological effect on the enhancement of...

Full Title: Evidence of Qi-gong energy and its biological effect on the enhancement of the phagocytic activity of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

In order to test for an effect of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) treated externally with Qi energy ("Qi-treated" PBS) on the phagocytic activity of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), rigorously controlled experiments employing masking and randomized procedures were carried out under independent monitoring. In all experiments, Qi treatment was externally applied under monitoring to newly purchased unopened 100 ml bottles of PBS, and the PMN phagocytic activity was assayed by one experimenter in masked, randomized and monitored conditions using a highly sensitive chemiluminescence method. Phagocytic activity data were obtained in triplicate for each sample and then statistically analyzed. The PBS samples Qi-treated by the Qi-gong master and by one of the Qi-gong trainees showed clear stimulation of PMN phagocytic activity which was significant statistically, and this phenomenon was highly reproducible. Out of 10 experiments by the Qi-gong master, only twice did Qi-treatment fail to influence the PBS. The activity of Qi-treated PBS decayed over days or weeks. Furthermore, it was found that Qi-treated PBS had decreased phagocytic stimulatory activity after microwave treatment, but not after autoclave treatment. We also demonstrated that microwave irradiation and infrared laser pulse irradiation have similar effects on PBS as Qi-treatment. The results obtained in this experiment provide evidence of the existence of Qi energy, its ability to influence an electrolyte solution and its biological effect. Furthermore, microwave or infrared laser pulse treatment was found to partly mimic the Qi-treatment of PBS.

Am J Chin Med. 2001;29(1):1-16. Fukushima M, Kataoka T, Hamada C, Matsumoto M. Department of Pharmacoepidemiology, School of Public Health, Kyoto University, Japan.

Cardiac rehabilitation for the elderly: Qi Gong and group discussions

BACKGROUND: Over the last decade several studies have shown that patients with coronary artery disease even above the age of 70 can be successfully treated with advanced medical and surgical methods. Unfortunately, rehabilitation programmes for this group are rarely offered. It is important to develop forms of rehabilitation that are adapted to the specific needs of this increasing group of elderly patients. The aim of this randomized study was to investigate whether the combination of Qi Gong and group discussions would increase physical ability for elderly patients > or =73 years with coronary artery disease. METHODS: A total of 95 patients (66 men and 29 women), with documented coronary artery disease, were randomized to an intervention group (n=48) mean age 77+/-3 (73-82) or to a control group (n=47) mean age 78+/-3 (73-84). The intervention groups met weekly over 3 months. The control group got usual care. Physical ability was assessed at baseline and after the intervention. RESULTS: Patients in the intervention group increased their self-estimated level of physical activity (P=0.011), and their performance in the one-leg stance test for the right leg (P=0.029), co-ordination (P=0.021) and the box-climbing test for right leg (P=0.035). CONCLUSION: A combination of Qi Gong and group discussions appear to be a promising rehabilitation for elderly cardiac patients in terms of improving self-reported physical activity, balance and co-ordination. This could be an option for elderly patients who do not participate in the ordinary cardiac rehabilitation.

Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2005 Feb;12(1):5-11. Stenlund T, Lindström B, Granlund M, Burell G. Heart Centre, University Hospital, SE-901 85 Umeå, Sweden. therese.stenlund@vll.se

Qi Gong exercises and Feldenkrais method from the perspective of Gestalt...

Full Title: Qi Gong exercises and Feldenkrais method from the perspective of Gestalt concept and humanistic psychology

This study describes two similar approaches to human movement: Qi Gong exercises and the Feldenkrais method. These systems are investigated in terms of Gestalt concepts and humanistic psychology. Moshe Feldenkrais created the concept known as Awareness Through Movement. This concept assumes that by becoming more aware of one's movements, one functions at a higher level. In similar ways to those using the Feldenkrais method, individuals may become more aware of their own movements by performing Qi Gong exercises: A therapeutic modality that facilitates mind-body integration. Qi Gong exercises commonly lead to increased personal awareness accompained by enhanced quality, fluency and smoothness of movement. These two methods of movement therapies are explored in terms of their relations with Gestalt concept and humanistic psychology. (c) 2008. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2010 Jul;14(3):227-33. Epub 2009 Feb 1. Posadzki P, Stöckl A, Mucha D. School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK. p.posadzki@uea.ac.uk

Application of intensified (+) Qi Gong energy, (-) electrical field, (S) magnetic field...

Full Title: Application of intensified (+) Qi Gong energy, (-) electrical field, (S) magnetic field, electrical pulses (1-2 pulses/sec), strong Shiatsu massage or acupuncture on the accurate organ representation areas of the hands to improve circulation and enhance drug uptake in pathological organs: clinical applications with special emphasis on the "Chlamydia-(Lyme)-uric acid syndrome" and "Chlamydia-(cytomegalovirus)-uric acid syndrome"

Various methods of improving circulation and enhancing drug uptake which were used in treating some intractable medical problems caused by infections, and two syndromes based on the co-existence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection (mixed with either Lyme Borrelia burgdorferi or Cytomegalovirus) with increased Uric acid are described. The principal author's previous studies have indicated that there are two opposite types of Qi Gong energy, positive (+) and negative (-). Positive (+) Qi Gong energy has been used clinically to enhance circulation and drug uptake in diseased areas where there is a micro-circulatory disturbance and drug uptake is markedly diminished. (-) Qi Gong energy has completely the opposite effect and therefore has not been used although there may be some as yet undiscovered application. Since the late 1980's the principal author has succeeded in storing (+) Qi Gong energy on a variety of substances including small sheets of paper, and recently has been able to intensify this energy by concentrating it as it passes through a cone-shaped, tapered glass or plastic object placed directly on the (+) Qi Gong energy stored paper. Application of (+) Qi Gong energy stored paper on the cardio-vascular representation area of the medulla oblongata at the occipital area of the skull often improved circulation and enhanced drug uptake. If the drug-uptake enhancement was still not sufficient for the drug to reach therapeutic levels in the diseased organ, direct application of (+) Qi Gong from the practitioner's hand often enhanced the drug uptake more significantly. However, this direct method often results in the practitioner developing intestinal micro-hemorrhage within 24 hours which may or may not be noticed as mild intestinal discomfort with soft, slightly tarry stool. For intensifying (+) Qi Gong energy one of the most efficient shapes is a cone with increased intensification occurring at an optimal height. However when the total mass and the total distance from base to peak is increased beyond an optimal limit, the power decreases. Clinical application of Intensified (+) Qi Gong stored energy was evaluated in this preliminary study which indicated that intensified (+) Qi Gong energy application on the heart representation area of the middle finger on the hands markedly improved circulation in the corresponding organ, and increased drug uptake and acetylcholine even more effectively than some of the previously used drug enhancement methods (Shiatsu massage of the organ representation areas and/or application of (+) Qi Gong energy stored paper to the occipital area above the cardiovascular representation area of the medulla oblongata).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Acupunct Electrother Res. 1995 Jan-Mar;20(1):21-72. Omura Y, Beckman SL. Heart Disease Research Foundation, New York, USA.

Influence of qi-gong on plasma TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in two TCM types of essential hypertension

Forty-five patients of essential hypertension differentiated into two TCM types, i.e. Gan Yang Shang Kang Zheng (GYSK) and Yin Xu Yang Kang Zheng (YXYK) were randomly selected. Among them, the 31 patients received qi-gong therapy including 12 GYSK cases (group b) and 19 YXYK cases (group c) and 14 patients (group d) received nifedipine therapy. It was found that the plasma 6-K-PGF1 alpha was increased and TXB2 as well as TXB2/6-K-PGF1 alpha ratio were decreased after the therapy (P < 0.05) in group b, c and d. No statistical significant difference was found between group b and group c (P > 0.05). The results suggest that qi-gong is regulatory on TXB2 and 6-K-PGF1 alpha in patients with essential hypertension and is identical in the two different TCM Zheng types.

Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 1997;22(6):497-9. Li W, Xing Z, Pi D, Li X. Institute of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Hunan Medical University, Changsha.

Impression on observing psychic surgery and healing in Brazil which appear to incorporate...

Full Title: Impression on observing psychic surgery and healing in Brazil which appear to incorporate (+) qi gong energy & the use of acupuncture points

In December, 1995, the author had the opportunity to observe an elderly psychic healer of East European origin in Sao Paulo, Brazil. This man specialized in cancer treatment by pointing with the fingers of his right hand at his patients, without actually touching them, spending an average of 30 to 40 minutes with each one. The author considered this to be Qi Gong treatment. In March, 1997 the author also observed 2 leading psychic healers in Brazil. One of them, named Rubens Farias, Jr. is a 43 year-old former engineer and computer programmer if European descent, who is commonly known as "Dr. Fritz III" because he is believed to be the spirit of Dr. Adolf Fritz, a German physician who died during World War I, operates through him. The other is "Dr." Hirota, a 53 year old former farmer of Japanese decent who lives near Campinas. About 120 kilometers outside of Sao Paulo and treats large numbers of people daily using indirect and/or hand-on healing techniques. On March 6, 1997, when the author visited "Dr. Fritz III"'s clinic in Sao Paulo with a group of Brazilian physicians, he was informed the about 1,400 patients had come that day. "Dr Fritz III" examined and treated the majority of the patients in less than one minute each, often asking very quick questions and then immediately beginning treatment. Most patients received injections of a dark-brown solution, which, some of the visiting doctors speculated, may be an iodine solution mixed with either alcohol or a local anesthetic. In many patients, he injected this solution near the pathological area or at an acupuncture point near the pathological area. When the needle of the syringe was in the acupuncture pint, he twirled it with his fingers several times and the withdrew it. Minor surgery was performed in about 1/5th of the patients with whom the author observed. Most of the surgical incisions were made on the midline of the tissue over the spine near the pathological area. The clamping of the blood vessels and the closings of the surgical wounds were performed by licensed surgeons or licensed nurses. Major surgery were done by "Dr. Fritz III" who used a rather primitive and unorthodox cutting technique. Except for major surgery, assistance was performed by volunteer nurses, including his wife. After the surgical wounds were closed, gauze band-aids were applied. When the surface of the gauze facing the wound was examined, it showed strong (+) Qi Gong energy according to the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test. Essentially, "Dr. Fritz III"'s treatment consists of acupuncture, injection of iodine with other substances near the pathological area, and (+) Qi Gong energy stored gauze which is applied to the acupuncture point, pathological area, or the site of surgery. "Dr." Hirota is another famous psychic healer whom the author was able to meet and observe in practice while in Brazil. "Dr." Hirota has been practicing for over 20 years. He usually sees patients who come to his clinic in the mornings and he claims to treat 1,000 to 2,000 patients daily between 9 AM and 12 noon. His main treatment also appears to be the application of external Qi Gong energy through the fingers of his right-hand, in combination with Shiatsu Massage and a manual procedure resembling chiropractic manipulation.

Acupunct Electrother Res. 1997;22(1):17-33. Omura Y. Heart Disease Research Foundation, New York, USA.

The influences of Chan-Chuang qi-gong therapy on complete blood cell counts in breast cancer...

Full Title: The influences of Chan-Chuang qi-gong therapy on complete blood cell counts in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

After surgery, breast cancer patients are offered adjuvant chemotherapy to avoid cancer cell spread. During chemotherapy process, neutrophils could fall relatively, and side effects could spike to the peak. Therefore, the medical care personnel should prevent the progression of the side effects. This study aimed to examine the effects of Chan-Chuang qi-gong therapy on complete blood counts in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. This study used a quasi-experimental design. The experiment group (n = 32) received a 21-day Chan-Chuang qi-gong therapy, whereas the control group (n = 35) did not. White blood cells, platelet, and hemoglobin were measured on the day before chemotherapy and on days 8, 15, and 22 during chemotherapy. According to this study, there were significant differences in white blood cells (F = 115.76, P <.001), platelets (F = 25.29, P <.001), and hemoglobin (F = 15.39, P <.001) over the 3-week therapy between the experiment and control groups. Chan-Chuang qi-gong therapy may decrease leukopenia in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. It is recommended conducting more studies on qi-gong and then introducing it in clinical nursing practice at an appropriate time to promote quality of nursing care and quality of patient life.

Cancer Nurs. 2006 Mar-Apr;29(2):149-55. Yeh ML, Lee TI, Chen HH, Chao TY. Graduate Institute of Integration of Traditional Chinese Medicine with Western Nursing, National Taipei College of Nursing, Taipei City, Taiwan, ROC. meiling@mail1.ntcn.edu.tw

The application of qi-gong therapy to health care

A great number of clinical studies merging traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine have proved the complementary healing effects of qi-gong in medical science. Traditional Chinese respiration exercises help to regulate our mind, body and breathing and coordinate our internal organs, remove toxins and enhance immunity. Domestic and foreign studies indicate that qi-gong can relieve chronic pain, reduce tension, increase activities of phagocytes in coenocytes, improve cardiopulmonary function, improve eyesight, influence the index of blood biochemistry, etc. Due to the obvious healing effects of qi-qong therapy, through introducing qi-gone concepts and related medical research, this paper aims to inspire health care workers to integrate qi-qong therapy into medical treatments and nursing care, or to carry out further studies in order to make good the shortfall in provision of holistic medicine and nursing in the interests of the quality of patient care.

Hu Li Za Zhi. 2005 Jun;52(3):65-70. Li TY, Yeh ML. Tri-Service General Hospital.

Functional capacity after traditional Chinese medicine (qi gong) training in patients with...

Full Title: Functional capacity after traditional Chinese medicine (qi gong) training in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled trial

Evidence indicates that low energy expenditure protocols derived from traditional Chinese medicine may benefit patients with cardiac impairment; therefore, the authors carried out a randomized controlled trial to test a 16-week medically assisted qi gong training program for the physical rehabilitation of patients with stable chronic atrial fibrillation and preserved left ventricular function. Functional capacity variation was evaluated using the 6-minute walk test, which was performed at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and after 16 weeks. Thirty men and 13 women (mean age, 68+/-8 years) were randomized to the intervention protocol or to a wait-list control group. Qi gong training was well tolerated and, compared with baseline, trained patients walked an average 114 meters more (27%) at the end of treatment (P<.001) and 57 meters more (13.7%) 16 weeks later (P=.008). Control subjects showed no variation in functional capacity. These results seem promising and deserve confirmation with further research.

Prev Cardiol. 2007 Winter;10(1):22-5. Pippa L, Manzoli L, Corti I, Congedo G, Romanazzi L, Parruti G. Camillo de Lellis per la Ricera Clinica Applicata, Pescara, Italy.

Internal Qigong for Pain Conditions: A Systematic Review

The objective of this systematic review was to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of internal qigong as a treatment option for pain conditions. Nineteen databases were searched through to February 2009. Controlled clinical trials testing internal qigong in patients with pain of any origin assessing clinical outcome measures were considered. Trials using any type of internal qigong and control intervention were included. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validation were performed independently by 2 reviewers. Four randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and 3 controlled clinical trials met all inclusion criteria. One RCT suggested no significant difference for low back pain compared with electromyographic biofeedback. Two RCTs failed to show effects of internal qigong in neck pain compared with exercise therapy and waiting list control. One RCT suggested that qigong is inferior to aerobic exercise in patients with fibromyalgia. There are few RCTs testing the effectiveness of internal qigong in the management of pain conditions. Collectively, the existing trial evidence is not convincing enough to suggest that internal qigong is an effective modality for pain management. PERSPECTIVE: This review of controlled clinical trials focused on the effects of internal qigong, a self-directed energy healing intervention involving movement and meditation. Collectively, the existing trial evidence is not convincing enough to suggest that internal qigong is an effective modality for pain management. Future studies should be of high quality with particular emphasis on designing an adequate control intervention.

J Pain. 2009 Jun 24. Lee MS, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Division of Standard Research, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea; Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, Universities of Exeter and Plymouth, Exeter, United Kingdom.

The effects of qi-gong and acupuncture on human cerebral evoked potentials and electroencephalogram

Although a number of studies on traditional Chinese medicine, such as qi-gong (QG), acupuncture (AC), moxibustion and Chinese herbal drugs, have been reported in recent years, there are few reports on human cerebral evoked potentials (EPs), especially relating only to QG and AC. In the present study, we examined the changes in EPs and electroencephalogram (EEG) by QG, and by AC stimulation to the point called "Zusanli" on the left lower leg, with one healthy male adult. 1. With regard to the effect of QG, significant changes in EP-components originated from the cortex suggest both facilitating and inhibitory effects of QG on the cortex. However, no significant changes in EP-components originated from the subcortex and no significant changes in EEG power% suggest that QG does not affect the subcortex. 2.With regard to the effects of AC, significant changes in EP-components originated from the cortex suggest facilitating and inhibitory effects of AC stimulation on the cortex. Furthermore, it is suggested that AC stimulation has few effects on the somatosensory and the visual pathways up to the cortex, while it has complicated effects on the auditory pathway up to the cortex.

J Med Invest. 1998 Feb;44(3-4):163-71. Xu M, Tomotake M, Ikuta T, Ishimoto Y, Okura M. Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Tokushima School of Medicine, Japan.

Storing of qi gong energy in various materials and drugs

Full Title: Storing of qi gong energy in various materials and drugs (qi gongnization): its clinical application for treatment of pain, circulatory disturbance, bacterial or viral infections, heavy metal deposits, and related intractable medical problems by selectively enhancing circulation and drug uptake.

In the process of evaluating the effects of external Qi Gong on inanimate substances by the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test, Qi Gong energy was shown to have a polarity which the author designated for convenience sake (+) or (-), where (+) increases the strength of muscles and (-) weakens them. Depending upon how external Qi Gong is applied and from which part of the body it emanates, the polarity changes. In general, it was found that, when (+) polarity is applied to the painful area or spastic muscles or arteries in vaso-constriction it often reduced or eliminated the pain, spastic muscles or circulatory disturbances. The author succeeded in storing part of the Qi Gong energy in inanimate materials, such as papers, metals (such as a sheet of aluminum foil), glass, stone, band-aids, clothes, drugs, etc. in bi-polar (one end of the same material becomes (+) polarity and the other end of the same material becomes (-) polarity) form in one material or uni-polar, i.e., the entire material either has pure (+) polarity or (-) polarity. Water, EPA, vitamins, antibiotics and other drugs were also converted to (+) polarity. When the material has a bi-polar state, it becomes possible to eliminate one of the polarities by applying certain changing electrical fields. The effect of placing (+) polarity Qi Gong energy stored material was compared with direct application of the Qi Gong on pain, spastic muscle and spastic vertebral arteries. The therapeutic effects of these 2 methods were quite similar for the identical time duration but a more predictable effect was often obtained in the former. As our previous study indicates that acupuncture, electrical stimulation (1-3 pulses/sec.), as well as Qi Gong not only improved the microcirculatory disturbance and relaxed spastic muscles and vaso-constrictive arteries but also reduced or eliminated the pain and also selectively enhanced drug uptake to the area where drugs could not be delivered due to existing circulatory disturbances, by placing (+) Qi Gong stored material, such as a sheet of paper or aluminum foil, band-aid or clothes. Bi- Digital O-Ring Test evaluation indicated that not only did it produce all the beneficial effects of Qi Gong but also enhanced the drug uptake selectively in the area where it is necessary for the drug to be delivered for effective treatment, and reduced lead deposits in tissue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Acupunct Electrother Res. 1990;15(2):137-57. Omura Y. Heart Disease Research Foundation, New York, N.Y.

Changes in brainstem and cortical auditory potentials during Qi-Gong meditation

"Qi Gong" (QG) is a meditation exercise known for thousands of years in China and has always been widely practiced. It has been claimed to have a variety of healing and other health benefits. To provide an understanding of the effect of QG on brain structures along the whole neural axis from the periphery to the cerebral cortex, we have monitored short-latency auditory brainstem evoked response, middle-latency response, and long-latency cortical auditory evoked potentials, before, during, and after QG. Our results showed that QG caused an enhancement of brainstem auditory evoked response with a concomitant depression of cortical responses. These observations may be related to the healing and other health benefits of QG.

Am J Chin Med. 1990;18(3-4):95-103. Liu GL, Cui RQ, Li GZ, Huang CM. Department of Physiology, Beijing College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China.

Unique changes found on the Qi Gong (Chi Gong) Master's and patient's body during Qi Gong treatment;

Full Title: Unique changes found on the Qi Gong (Chi Gong) Master's and patient's body during Qi Gong treatment; their relationships to certain meridians & acupuncture points and the re-creation of therapeutic Qi Gong states by children & adults

Changes taking place in both Qi Gong Masters and their patients during Qi Gong treatment were evaluated using the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test. During the Qi Gong state, on the Qi-Gong Master's body, as well as the body of the patient being treated, acupuncture points CV5 (Shi Men) and CV6 (Qi Hai)-- located below the umbilicus-- show changes from +4 in the pre-Qi Gong state to between -3 and -4 during the Qi Gong state. Before and after the Qi Gong, there is a normal +4 response to the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test at these acupuncture points. Similar changes were also observed on acupuncture points CV17 (Shan Zhong), CV 22 (Tian Tu), Yin Tang (at an area just between the eyebrows: the pituitary gland representation area, colloquially known as the "third eye") and GV20(Bai Hui), the entire pericardium meridian & triple burner meridian, their acupuncture points, the adrenal glands, testes, ovaries and perineum, as well as along the entire spinal vertebrae, particularly on and above the 12th thoracic vertebra, medulla oblongata, pons, and the intestinal representation areas of the brain located just above and behind the upper ear. Using these findings as criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of reaching the Qi Gong state, we were able to reproduce during the experimental trials similar changes in ourselves and the patient being treated with therapeutic effects comparable to those of the Qi Gong Master. Beneficial effects of external Qi Gong treatment given by a Qi Gong practitioner 1 to 3 times for 10-20 seconds each (although most Qi Gong masters take 3-20 minutes per treatment) often resulted in improvement of circulation and lowering of high blood pressure, as well as relaxation of spastic muscles, relief of pain, and enhanced general well-being, all of which resemble acupuncture effects. In order to reproduce the same procedure with others, we selected 4 children ranging between 8 and 11 years of age who had no knowledge of Qi Gong or Oriental medicine. One of these four children, the 8 year old, was able to consistently reach the same Qi Gong state after less than a half day and another child, 11, after less than 2 days. Within a week, the other two were sometimes able to reproduce the Qi Gong state but not always. Using the Qi Gong state thus obtained, it was found that this type of Qi Gong energy is directed to specific directions from the hand and can even penetrate wooden or metal doors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Acupunct Electrother Res. 1989;14(1):61-89. Omura Y, Lin TL, Debreceni L, Losco BM, Freed S, Muteki T, Lin CH. Heart Disease Research Foundation, New York, NY.

Observation of qi-gong treatment in 60 cases of pregnancy-induced hypertension

Qi-gong relaxation exercise was used for treatment of pregnancy induced hypertension(PIH). Patients exercised 3 times a day until labor. In this study, there were two groups with 60 cases of PIH who had delivered in each group, they were treated by Qi-gong for one group and by medicine for another used as control. The clinical efficacy was evaluated according to PIH combined scores showed effective for 54 cases (90.0%) in Qi-gong group and 33 cases (55.0%) for the control group (P less than 0.01). Meconium stain in amniotic fluid was present in 12 cases (20.0%) in Qi-gong group and 29 cases (48.3%) in the control group (P less than 0.05). The incidence of abnormal hematocrit (greater than 35%) before treatment was 52.4% and decreased to 23.8% (P less than 0.05) in Qi-gong, while in the control group was 35.7% before treatment and 45.2% after treatment (P greater than 0.05). The mean value of blood E2 by RIA showed increased from 22.97 +/- 13.16 micrograms/ml to 33.74 +/- 34.01 micrograms/ml after Qi-gong treatment in 29 cases. The microscopical observation of finger nail capillaries showed various degrees of improvement of microcirculation after Qi-gong exercise for 17 cases and after a course of Qi-gong treatment for 11 cases in Qi-gong group. While for the control group, there was no changes after sit-still for some time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1989 Jan;9(1):16-8, 4-5. Zhou MR, Lian MR.

Statistical brain topographic mapping analysis for EEGs recorded during Qi Gong state

Spontaneous EEGs recorded with 12 channels (International 10-20 system) on the scalp were analyzed by statistical brain topographic mapping (t-test and correlation coefficient topographic mappings) to reveal changes of the electrical activity in the brain during Qi Gong state. The control subjects and two groups of masters and beginners in accordance with the time and the skilled degree practising Qi Gong were compared. The changes of EEGs of the Qi Gong masters during the Qi Gong state were clearly different from those recorded during the resting state with closed eyes. The EEG alpha activity occurred predominantly in the anterior half, and occurred silently in the posterior half of the brain during Qi Gong state. The peak frequency of EEG alpha rhythm during Qi Gong state was slower than resting state without practicing Qi Gong. The results of the t-test and correlation coefficient topographic mappings showed this finding quantitatively and statistically significant. The changes in EEG between resting and Qi Gong state for Qi Gong masters appear to be opposite. This findings indicates that Qi Gong state is a special and unusual state and this state is not an inherent state existing in each person. The occurrence of this phenomenon of EEG depends on the duration and the skilled degree of the practising Qi Gong.

Int J Neurosci. 1988 Feb;38(3-4):415-25. Zhang JZ, Li JZ, He QN. Computer Laboratory, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China.

EEG findings during special psychical state (Qi Gong state)

Full Title: EEG findings during special psychical state (Qi Gong state) by means of compressed spectral array and topographic mapping

Wallace first reported the changes in EEG during transcendental mediation [6]. Banquet [1] observed, on the basis of spectral analysis of the EEG, that the mediation state was a unique state of consciousness, and separate from wakefulness, drowsiness or sleep. The Qi Gong of China is not the same as either transcendental mediation or the Yoga Gong. The EEG during Qi Gong state is clearly different from those recorded during the resting state. The changes in the EEG during the Qi Gong have not been reported previously. The EEG alpha activity during the Qi Gong state occurs predominantly in the anterior regions. The peak frequency of EEG alpha rhythm is slower than the resting state. The change of EEG during Qi Gong between anterior and posterior half is negative correlation. These changes are statistically significant.

Comput Biol Med. 1988;18(6):455-63. Zhang JZ, Zhao J, He QN. Computer Laboratory, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China.

Effects of Qigong exercises on 3 different parameters of human saliva.

To analyze the effects of a Qigong program on various parameters of unstimulated saliva, including volume, pH and secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) level.


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