Tim Brunson DCH

Welcome to The International Hypnosis Research Institute Web site. Our intention is to support and promote the further worldwide integration of comprehensive evidence-based research and clinical hypnotherapy with mainstream mental health, medicine, and coaching. We do so by disseminating, supporting, and conducting research, providing professional level education, advocating increased level of practitioner competency, and supporting the viability and success of clinical practitioners. Although currently over 80% of our membership is comprised of mental health practitioners, we fully recognize the role, support, involvement, and needs of those in the medical and coaching fields. This site is not intended as a source of medical or psychological advice. -- Tim Brunson, PhD

An exploratory study on scientific investigations in homeopathy using medical analyzer.



BACKGROUND: The action of homeopathic medicines, in ultra-high dilution, is not directly observable. An attempt was made to explore autonomic response of selective homeopathic medicines, in healthy persons, using Medical Analyzer System (Electronics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to observe the action of homeopathic medicines on physiologic variability of heart rate and blood flow. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pre- and postinterventional variability spectra of heart rate and blood flow of 77 subjects were recorded with the Medical Analyzer System, administering homeopathic preparations of Aconitum napellus (6c, 10M), Arsenicum album (200c, 1M), Gelsemium sempervirens (200c, 1M), Phosphorus (200c, 1M), Pulsatilla nigricans (200c) and Sulphur (200c, 1M) versus placebo control. The amplitude of the peaks viz. low-frequency, medium-frequency, and high-frequency was measured for postintervention analysis. An increase in the amplitude of any valid peak by 100% or a decrease by 50% was considered as significant change. RESULTS: Aconitum napellus produced a response in heart rate variability (HRV) with 30c potency and in blood flow variability with 1M potency. Sulphur 200c and 1M, Gelsemium 200c and Pulsatilla 200c, produced a 62.5% response in HRV against the placebo response of 16.6%. Gelsemium, Phosphorus, and Sulphur produced a response in blood flow variability with a 1M potency, similar to the response of Aconitum napellus 1M. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that it is possible to record the response of homeopathic medicines on physiologic parameters of the autonomic nervous system.

J Altern Complement Med. 2011 Aug;17(8):705-10. Mishra N, Muraleedharan KC, Paranjpe AS, Munta DK, Singh H, Nayak C. Regional Research Institute for Homoeopathy, CCRH, Mumbai, India. Comment in J Altern Complement Med. 2011 Sep;17(9):771-3.

Apparent life-threatening events in infants and homeopathy: An alternative explanation.



Background: A recent report showed increased frequency of apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) in infants treated with the homeopathic medication GaliCol-Baby (GCB). The premise was that the ALTEs resulted from toxic effects of the drug's components. We examine an alternative explanation. Method: The toxicological literature was searched for known reactions to the various GCB components, noting doses and reported symptoms. Dosage quantities and severity of reaction to the GCB were ranked independently by two groups of physicians, and a dose-response curve was generated. Reported toxic doses and symptoms were compared with those of the GCB series. The homeopathic literature was searched as well to determine the propensity of the GCB components to cause ALTE symptoms, when given in homeopathic doses to healthy volunteers (proving). Results: Doses ingested in the GCB series were 10-13 orders of magnitude smaller than those reported to cause toxic reactions in humans. There was poor correlation between symptoms with GCB and toxic profiles of the components. A nonsignificant, inverse relationship between dose and severity of reaction was observed. Conversely, four GCB components (in homeopathic doses) had a high propensity to produce at least one of five symptoms which define ALTE, two of which had intermediate to high propensity to produce three symptoms. Conclusions: It is unlikely that the ALTE following ingestion of GCB was a toxic reaction to any of the drug's component. Homeopathic theory may explain this linkage, though further research is needed to understand the pathogenic effects of highly diluted homeopathic compounds.

Hum Exp Toxicol. 2011 Jul 29. Oberbaum M, Samuels N, Ben-Arye E, Amitai Y, Singer SR. Center for Integrative Complementary Medicine, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Usage of alternative medical systems, acupuncture, homeopathy and anthroposophic medicine...



Full Title: Usage of alternative medical systems, acupuncture, homeopathy and anthroposophic medicine, by older German adults.

OBJECTIVE: The manifold studies on the usage of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) indicate that its utilization differs with respect to socio-cultural background, gender, age and underlying disease. This study intended to analyze the usage of specific CAM practices among a population of older German adults with health insurance coverage. METHODS: Data of 5 830 older individuals who participated in an anonymous cross sectional survey among German insurance beneficiaries were analyzed with respect to usage of CAM treatments applied by medical doctors or non-medical practitioners within the last 5 years. RESULTS: The most frequently used approaches were acupuncture/traditional Chinese medicine (21%), homeopathy (21%), movement therapies/physical exercises (19%), osteopathy/chiropractic (12%), herbs/phytotherapy (7%), diets/specific food recommendations (6%) and foot reflexology (5%). Anthroposophic medicine was used only to a minor degree. Acupuncture and homeopathy users were likely to choose more than one CAM treatment simultaneously, particularly the combination of homeopathy and acupuncture. Moreover, this study can confirm significant differences between women and men in the use of the main relevant CAM interventions. CONCLUSION: The relative proportion of acupuncture usage was similar to homeopathy, which is an alternative whole medical system originating from Western Europe. This means that an Eastern alternative system is established also in Germany. In several cases not only one CAM treatment was used but distinct combinations existed (particularly homeopathy and acupuncture); thus one should be cautious to draw predictive conclusions from studies with broad and unspecific CAM categories, for among them there are several therapies which should not be regarded as CAM.

Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2011 Aug;9(8):847-56. Büssing A, Ostermann T, Heusser P, Matthiessen PF. Quality of Life, Spirituality and Coping, Center for Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Health, University of Witten/Herdecke, Gerhard-Kienle-Weg 4, 58313 Herdecke, Germany. arndt.buessing@uni-wh.de

Homoeopathic remedies in dermatology: a systematic review of controlled clinical trials.



Background Homoeopathic therapies are routinely used for the management of skin diseases. However, there is a lack of evidence-based data on their effectiveness. Objectives To assess the evidence for the efficacy of homoeopathic treatments in dermatology. Methods We designed a systematic review of the controlled clinical trials (January 1962-April 2011) investigating homoeopathic therapies for the treatment of cutaneous diseases. We collected data from MEDLINE, PubMed, Current Contents, HomInform (Glasgow), reference lists, specialist textbooks and contacts with homoeopathic manufacturers. There was no restriction on language. Subsets were defined according to treated skin disease/condition. For each subset, two reviewers extracted data for information on study quality, type of remedy, population and outcomes. Results After an extensive search, we isolated a very limited number of trials investigating homoeopathic treatments for cutaneous diseases. Overall, of the 12 trials with interpretable results, nine trials indicated no positive effects of homoeopathy. The three trials showing a positive effect were of low methodological quality. Conclusions Reviewed trials of homoeopathic treatments for cutaneous diseases were highly variable in methods and quality. We did not find sufficient evidence from these studies that homoeopathy is clearly efficacious for any single dermatological condition.

Br J Dermatol. 2011 Oct;165(4):897-905. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2011.10457.x. Simonart T, Kabagabo C, De Maertelaer V. Private Practice, av. Gounod 27, B-1070 Brussels, Belgium Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics & IRIBHM, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Measuring the effectiveness of homeopathic care through objective and shared indicators.



OBJECTIVE: To test a methodology to evaluate, at population level, the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment through standard objective public health indicators. METHODS AND SETTINGS: Indicators of hospitalization and drug use were obtained from the Health Statistical Documentation System of Tuscany for two homeopathic centers in the Local Health Authority of Pisa, Italy. We compared homeopathic users with the general population in the same area and by comparing patients before and after homeopathic treatment. RESULTS: The homeopathic patients used less drugs than the reference population, this effect was more evident for patients with repeated homeopathic consultations. A significant decrease in drug use was found on comparing the same patients before and after homeopathic treatment. Hospitalization indicators tended to favor patients who had received homeopathic treatment but were not always statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: This paper demonstrates a new methodological approach to assess the effectiveness of a therapeutic modality, without ad-hoc clinical trials. This methodology can be used by public health institutions in which non-conventional medicines are integrated into the public health care system.

Homeopathy. 2011 Oct;100(4):212-9. Leone L, Marchitiello M, Natilli M, Romano MF. Scuola Superiore di Studi Universitari e Perfezionamento Sant'Anna di Pisa, Italy.

New homeopathic medicines: use of modern drugs according to the principle of similitude.



BACKGROUND: The homeopathic method is based on the application of the principle of therapeutic similitude (similia similibus curentur), using medicines that cause effects similar to the symptoms of disease in order to stimulate the reaction of the organism against disturbances. Such vital, homeostatic or paradoxical reaction of the organism can be scientifically explained on the basis of the rebound effect of modern drugs. AIMS: This article presents the conclusion of a study aiming at a method to use modern drugs with homeopathic criteria. METHODS: Adverse effects as catalogued in United States Pharmacopoeia Dispensing Information Drug monographs were collected. RESULTS: A homeopathic materia medica and repertory comprising 1251 modern drugs to be employed according to the principle of therapeutic similitude was developed. CONCLUSION: Besides supplying a basis for homeopathy as a medical rationale related to scientific pharmacology, this study makes available a method that may broaden the scope of intervention of homeopathy in present day diseases.

Homeopathy. 2011 Oct;100(4):244-52. Teixeira MZ. Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Undergraduate homeopathy education in Europe and the influence of accreditation.



CONTEXT: The safety of patients consulting with practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) partially depends on practitioners' competence, and thus the standard of undergraduate education. OBJECTIVES: Describe undergraduate homeopathy courses in Europe, student/graduate numbers and whether there were differences between recognised/accredited and non-recognised/non-accredited courses. METHODS: Cross sectional survey of current homeopathy undergraduate education in Europe in 2008. Data from 145 (94.8%) out of 153 identified courses were collected. Eighty-five (55.6%) responded to a questionnaire survey. For others some data was extracted from their websites. Only data from the questionnaire survey is used for the main analysis. FINDINGS: The average course in the questionnaire survey had 47 enrolled students and 142 graduates, and lasted 3.6 years part-time. An estimated 6500 students were enrolled and 21,000 had graduated from 153 identified European undergraduate homeopathy courses. Out of 85 courses most had entry requirements and provided medical education (N = 48) or required students to obtain this competence elsewhere (N = 33). The average number of teaching hours were 992 (95% confidence interval (CI) 814, 1170) overall, with 555 h (95%CI 496, 615) for homeopathy. Four out of five courses were recognised/accredited. Recognised/accredited part-time courses lasted significantly longer than non-recognised/non-accredited courses (difference 0.6 years, 95%CI 0.0-1.2, P = 0.040), and offered significantly larger numbers of teaching hours in homeopathy (difference 167 h, 95%CI 7-327, P = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: About 6500 currently enrolled students are doing undergraduate homeopathy education in Europe and 21,000 have graduated from such courses over a period of about 30 years. Undergraduate homeopathy education in Europe is heterogeneous. Recognized/accredited courses are more extensive with more teaching hours.

Homeopathy. 2011 Oct;100(4):253-8. Viksveen P, Steinsbekk A. Lindeveien 55, 4314 Sandnes, Norway.

BBC Horizon Homeopathy The Test Part 1



Homeopathic and integrative treatment for feline hyperthyroidism - four cases (2006-2010).



Hyperthyroidism is a frequent veterinary problem, particularly in elderly cats. Homeopathic treatment and other integrative modalities were provided for four hyperthyroid cats whose owners did not want conventional treatment. Symptomatic homeopathic treatment with Thyroidinum was helpful in one cat. All cats were prescribed an appropriate individualized homeopathic remedy. All four cats showed resolution of clinical signs; three attained normal thyroid hormone levels. Three cats later received acupuncture and/or herbal medicines; two cats later received symptomatic homeopathic remedies. Two cats are thriving after over 3.5 and 4.25years of treatment; two were euthanized for unrelated problems after 3 and 4years of treatment. Homeopathic and complementary therapies avoid the potential side effects of methimazole and surgical thyroidectomy, they are less costly than radioactive iodine treatment, and they provide an option for clients who decline conventional therapies.

Homeopathy. 2011 Oct;100(4):270-4. Chapman SF. The Animal Medical Center of Watkins Park, PO Box 426, Cheltenham, MD 20623, USA.

Use of homeopathic preparations in experimental studies with abiotically stressed plants.



BACKGROUND: Experimental research on the effects of homeopathic treatments on impaired plants was last reviewed in 1990. OBJECTIVES: To compile a systematic review of the existing literature on basic research in homeopathy with abiotically stressed plants using predefined criteria. METHODS: The literature search was carried out on publications that reported experiments on homeopathy using abiotically stressed whole plants, seeds, plant parts and cells from 1920 to 2010. Outcomes had to be measured by established procedures and statistically evaluated. Using of a Manuscript Information Score (MIS) we identified those publications that provided sufficient information for proper interpretation (MIS=5). A further evaluation was based on the use of adequate controls to investigate specific effects of homeopathic preparations and on the use of systematic negative control experiments. RESULTS: A total of 34 publications with abiotically stressed plants was identified, published between 1965 and 2010. The 34 publications described a total of 37 experimental studies. Twenty-two studies included statistics, 13 had a MIS=5, 8 were identified with adequate controls and 4 with negative control experiments. Significant and reproducible effects with decimal and centesimal potencies were found, including dilution levels beyond Avogadro's number. One experimental model was independently assessed by another research team and yielded inverted results compared to the original trial. CONCLUSIONS: Abiotically stressed plant models seem to be a useful approach to investigate homeopathic basic research questions, but more experimentation and especially more independent replication trials are needed. Systematic negative control experiments should be implemented on a routine basis to exclude false-positive results.

Homeopathy. 2011 Oct;100(4):275-87. Jäger T, Scherr C, Shah D, Majewsky V, Betti L, Trebbi G, Bonamin L, Simões-Wüst AP, Wolf U, Simon M, Heusser P, Baumgartner S. Institute of Complementary Medicine KIKOM, University of Bern, Switzerland; Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Frick, Switzerland.

Review of the use of high potencies in basic research on homeopathy.



The HomBRex database includes details of about 1500 basic research experiments in homeopathy. A general overview on the experiments listed in the HomBRex database is presented, focusing on high dilutions and the different settings in which those were used. Though often criticised, many experiments with remedies diluted beyond Avogadro's number demonstrate specific effects. A total of 830 experiments employing high potencies was found; in 745 experiments of these (90%), at least one positive result was reported. Animals represent the most often used model system (n=371), followed by plants (n=201), human material (n=92), bacteria and viruses (n=37) and fungi (n=32). Arsenicum album (Ars.) is the substance most often applied (n=101), followed by Sulphur (Sulph.) and Thuja (Thuj.) (n=65 and 48, respectively). Proving, prophylactic and therapeutic study designs have all been used and appear appropriate for homeopathy basic research using high dilutions. The basic research data set to support specific effects unique to high dilutions and opposite to those observed with low dilutions is, to date, insufficient.

Homeopathy. 2011 Oct;100(4):288-92. Clausen J, van Wijk R, Albrecht H. Karl und Veronica Carstens-Stiftung, Am Deimelsberg 36, 45276 Essen, Germany.

Homeopathic ear drops as an adjunct to standard therapy in children with acute otitis media.



OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a homeopathic ear drop for treatment of otalgia in children with acute otitis media (AOM). METHODS: Children with AOM were enrolled in the study at the time of diagnosis and randomized to receive either standard therapy alone or standard therapy plus a homeopathic ear drop solution that was to be used on as needed basis for up to 5 days. Parents of children in both treatment groups rated the severity of 5 AOM symptoms twice daily for 5 days in a symptom diary. A symptom score was computed for each assessment with lower scores denoting less severe symptoms. Parents of children randomized to receive ear drops also recorded information regarding symptoms being treated and response to treatment. RESULTS: A total of 119 eligible children were enrolled in the study; symptom diaries were received from 94 (79%). Symptom scores tended to be lower in the group of children receiving ear drops than in those receiving standard therapy alone; these differences were significant at the second and third assessments (P = 0.04 and P = 0.003, respectively). In addition, the rate of symptom improvement was faster in children in the ear drop group compared with children in standard therapy alone group (P = 0.002). The most common reason for administration of ear drops was ear pain, recorded for 93 doses; improvement was noted after 78.4% of doses for this indication. There were no significant side effects related to use of the ear drops. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that homeopathic ear drops were moderately effective in treating otalgia in children with AOM and may be most effective in the early period after a diagnosis of AOM. Pediatricians and other primary health care providers should consider homeopathic ear drops a useful adjunct to standard therapy.

Homeopathy. 2011 Jul;100(3):109-15. Taylor JA, Jacobs J. Department of Pediatrics, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. uncjat@u.washington.edu

Becoming Whole: The Role of Story for Healing.



This paper explores the role of story for healing. Specifically, this paper describes story and healing in cultural or whole medical systems, including Latino/Hispanic traditions, Native American/Indigenous traditions, and Homeopathy. In addition, the authors provide a brief overview of story and healing in the nursing and medical literature, and evaluate the value of story in our current practice as holistic nurses. It is important for the holistic nurse to be aware of the role of stories for healing in diverse systems of healthcare. This awareness can help bridge the knowledge gap between cultural or whole medical systems and Western Medicine, thus optimizing the healing environment for the patient, nurse, and other providers of care.

J Holist Nurs. 2011 Oct 4. Reich J, Michaels C.

The frequency of dietary references in homeopathic consultations.



A retrospective quantitative study on dietary references found in medical records of 2753 patients attending consultations from 10/1/1994 to 5/31/2007 was conducted. The symptoms found in the rubrics relating to food and drink aggravation and amelioration, aversion and craving of homeopathic repertories reflect diets at different places and times and do not correspond fully, to contemporary gastronomy. Desires for sweet and spicy foods were statistically more frequent, revealing the prevailing taste for such food among the studied population. Food cravings should be carefully analyzed before considering them as indications for choosing homeopathic therapy, they are less significant than aversions, aggravations and ameliorations.

Homeopathy. 2011 Jul;100(3):144-7. Filho RD. R Borges Lagoa, 564 Cj 71. São Paulo - SP CEP 04038-000, Brazil. rdolce@uol.com.br

Blisters and homeopathy: case reports and differential diagnosis.



Blisters are skin lesions characterized by accumulation of fluid between the layers of the skin. Their severity varies from the common blisters caused by friction to severe autoimmune and congenital bullous disorders, some of them currently without treatment in conventional medicine or requiring drugs with potentially severe side-effects. This article reports cases of blistering diseases successfully treated with homeopathic medicines, which represent an alternative for the treatment of such disorders.

Homeopathy. 2011 Jul;100(3):168-74. Jurj G, Waisse S. Asociatia Româna de Homeopatie Clinica, Timisoara, Romania.

Comparison of effectiveness of frequently and infrequently used homeopathic medicines.



RATIONALE: Patients treated with homeopathy may respond to infrequently used or even 'new' medicines. But does the introduction of an unlimited number of (new) medicines improve homeopathy? Do new medicines solve old problems? METHODS: 1. Consensus meetings to evaluate best cases. 2. Patient outcome study in 10 Dutch practices. RESULTS: Good cases are scarce for many medicines, random variance is an important source of uncertainty. 50 Medicines are responsible for 72% of all successful prescriptions. There is no difference in effectiveness of frequently and less frequently used medicines. Confirmation bias is found for a few well-known symptom-medicine combinations. CONCLUSION: 'New' and infrequently medicines are as effective as 'old' frequently used medicines. Improving the use of frequently used medicines is more effective in improving results than seldom used medicines. Large numbers are required and old mistakes should be avoided developing new medicines. A research agenda for improving the use of homeopathic medicines is imperative.

Homeopathy. 2011 Jul;100(3):175-82. Rutten AL. Commissie Methode en Validering VHAN, Dutch Association of Homeopathic Physicians, The Netherlands. lexrtn@concepts.nl

A discussion: the future role of homeopathy in the National Health Service (NHS).



Homeopathy has been provided by the National Health Service in the UK for over 60 years, funded largely by taxpayer's money. However, in recent years, its provision has come under much criticism questioning its true value. Taking a neutral stance, arguments both for and against the provision of homeopathy on the NHS is presented. It includes issues such as the evidence and safety profile of homeopathy, but also takes into account costs and benefits of homeopathy in a wider perspective. Overall, the provision of homeopathy is justified as long as there is a need within the population, occupying a complementary role alongside conventional medicine.

Homeopathy. 2011 Jul;100(3):183-6. Ng DY. College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. dyn605@bham.ac.uk

Toward a topological description of the therapeutic process.



INTRODUCTION: Two (2) quantum theoretically based metaphor/models have been proposed recently to describe the therapeutic process in homeopathy in terms of (1) a representation of the vital force (Vf) as a spinning quantized gyroscope, describable as a wave function; and (2) a form of nonorthodox quantum theoretical entanglement (called PPR entanglement) between the patient, practitioner, and remedy. METHOD: Combining these two descriptions permits "normalization" of the Vf gyroscopic wave function. In this context, "normalization" refers to the probability of a patient's symptom totality being expressed and observable to the practitioner within a "therapeutic state space" that has mirror-like characteristics. RESULTS: The Vf gyroscopic wave function contains a constant A related to this symptom totality and its expression. Normalization provides values for A at various stages of the patient's journey to cure, while at the same time suggesting a possible Möbius strip-like "topology" for the practitioner-derived "therapeutic state space." CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the value of A on normalization indicate how expression of symptom totality varies at different stages of the patient's journey to cure, while suggesting a "topology" for the therapeutic process and how the practitioner could be affected by it.

J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Dec;16(12):1329-41. Epub 2010 Dec 1. Milgrom LR. Program for Advanced Homeopathic Studies, London, United Kingdom. Lionel.milgrom@hotmail.com

A review of three simple plant models and corresponding statistical tools for basic research



Full title: A review of three simple plant models and corresponding statistical tools for basic research in homeopathy.

In this paper, we review three simple plant models (wheat seed germination, wheat seedling growth, and infected tobacco plants) that we set up during a series of experiments carried out from 1991 to 2009 in order to study the effects of homeopathic treatments. We will also describe the set of statistical tools applied in the different models. The homeopathic treatment used in our experiments was arsenic trioxide (As?O?) diluted in a decimal scale and dynamized. Since the most significant results were achieved with the 45th decimal potency, both for As?O? (As 45x) and water (W 45x), we here report a brief summary of these results. The statistical analysis was performed by using parametric and nonparametric tests, and Poisson distribution had an essential role when dealing with germination experiments. Finally, we will describe some results related to the changes in variability, which seems to be one of the targets of homeopathic treatment effect.

ScientificWorldJournal. 2010 Dec 14;10:2330-47. Betti L, Trebbi G, Zurla M, Nani D, Peruzzi M, Brizzi M. Department of Agroenvironmental Sciences and Technologies, University of Bologna, Italy. lucietta.betti@unibo.it

The Bradford Hill criteria and zinc-induced anosmia: a causality analysis.



OBJECTIVE: To apply the Bradford Hill criteria, which are widely used to establish causality between an environmental agent and disease, to evaluate the relationship between over-the-counter intranasal zinc gluconate therapy and anosmia. DESIGN: Patient and literature review applying the Bradford Hill criteria on causation. SETTING: University of California, San Diego, Nasal Dysfunction Clinic. PATIENTS: The study included 25 patients who presented to the University of California, San Diego, Nasal Dysfunction Clinic complaining of acute-onset anosmia after intranasal application of homeopathic zinc gluconate gel. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Each of the 9 Bradford Hill criteria--strength of association, consistency, specificity, temporality, biological gradient (dose-response), biological plausibility, biological coherence, experimental evidence, and analogy--was applied to intranasal zinc gluconate therapy and olfactory dysfunction using published, peer-reviewed medical literature and reported clinical experiences. RESULTS: Clinical, biological, and experimental data support the Bradford Hill criteria to demonstrate that intranasal zinc gluconate therapy causes hyposmia and anosmia. CONCLUSIONS: The Bradford Hill criteria represent an important tool for scientifically determining cause between environmental exposure and disease. Increased Food and Drug Administration oversight of homeopathic medications is needed to monitor the safety of these popular remedies.

Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Jul;136(7):673-6. Davidson TM, Smith WM. Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Continuing Medical Education, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92037-0612, USA. tdavidson@ucsd.edu

Awareness of basic life support among medical, dental, nursing students and..



Full Title: Awareness of basic life support among medical, dental, nursing students and doctors.

To study the awareness of Basic Life Support (BLS) among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. A cross-sectional study was conducted by assessing responses to 20 selected basic questions regarding BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges. After excluding the incomplete response forms the data was analysed on 1,054 responders. The results were analysed using an answer key prepared with the use of the Advanced Cardiac Life Support manual. Out of 1,054 responders 345 were medical students, 75 were medical interns, 19 were dental students, 59 were dental interns, 105 were homeopathy interns, 319 were nursing students, 72 were doctors, 29 were dentists, 25 were nursing faculty and six were homeopathy doctors. No one among them had complete knowledge of BLS. Only two out of 1054 (0.19%) had secured 80 - 89% marks, 10 out of 1054 (0.95%) had secured 70 - 79% marks, 40 of 1054 (4.08%) had secured 60 - 69% marks and 105 of 1054 (9.96%) had secured 50 - 59% marks. A majority of them, that is, 894 (84.82%) had secured less than 50% marks. Awareness of BLS among students, doctors and nurses of medical, dental, homeopathy and nursing colleges is very poor.

Indian J Anaesth. 2010 Mar;54(2):121-6. Chandrasekaran S, Kumar S, Bhat SA, Saravanakumar, Shabbir PM, Chandrasekaran V. Vinayaka Mission's Kirupananda Variyar Medical College, Salem, Tamilnadu, India.

The concept of health - in the history of medicine and in the writings of..



Full Title: The concept of health - in the history of medicine and in the writings of Hahnemann.

The number of notions of health is not infinite. In the history of medicine we can only find a number of different conceptions or paradigmatic ideas of health, in a variety of references and combinations. Health was seen as: 1. harmonious balance between principles or entities, 2. result of a struggle against opposing forces, 3. continuous dialectical process, 4. hierarchy of components or functions, 5. potential to perform and to develop, 6. transcendence towards higher levels of being, 7. result of conscious autonomous action, 8. optimal causal functioning, or 9. public task and responsibility. Hahnemann's view of health, as reflected in his writings, utilized virtually all of these elements. They reappear for instance as: 1. harmonious tuning of the life force, 2. defeat of pathogenetic influences, 3. admittance of aggravations, 4. autocracy of the spirit-like life principle, 5. reference to a higher goal of human existence, 6. perfecting character of medical service, 7. concern about dietetics and life style, 8. utilization of causality and natural science, and 9. appealing to governmental provisions and medical police. These paradigms have been repeatedly recombined and applied. The theory of medicine is the attempt to analyze, adjust, and develop concepts that meet the demand of contemporary medical practice. Medical theory lies between the fields of observable facts and metaphysical convictions. Distinguishing the levels of practice, theory, and metaphysics could allow the open discussion of theoretical issues, such as the concept of health or disease, without raising purely theoretical objections to well-established practice.

Homeopathy. 2010 Jul;99(3):215-20. Schmidt JM. Department of the History of Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany. j.m.schmidt@lrz.uni-muenchen.de

Concepts of homeopathy among general population in Karachi, Pakistan.



OBJECTIVE: To explore the characteristics of patients and their gender influences concerning the use of homeopathic medicine, visiting both homeopathic and conventional medicine (allopathic) clinics. METHODS: This cross sectional study was carried out on 200 patients who attended private and public homeopathic and allopathic clinics or hospitals in Karachi using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Data for demographic variables of frequencies and associations between variables were analyzed on SPSS version 12.0. Significance level was p < 0.05. RESULTS: Out of the total, 64.5% respondents, more among females than males (p < 0.01) believed in homeopathy. Although slightly more than a quarter preferred homeopathic treatment than allopathic treatment, 67.5% participants had had homeopathic consultation and treatment in the past. Amongst participants who had opted for homeopathy in any of their illnesses, the majority had it for chronic conditions which included skin lesions and problems of rheumatology. CONCLUSION: In this modern era, where people have the choice to decide newer and advanced forms of medical treatment and scientific methods, a large proportion of people still rely on alternative forms of treatment like homeopathy. More awareness regarding use of homeopathic treatment is needed among general population.

J Pak Med Assoc. 2010 Aug;60(8):667-70. Shah SF, Mubeen SM, Mansoor S. Department of Community Health Sciences, Hamdard College of Medicine & Dentistry, Karachi.

Pre-trial beliefs in complementary and alternative medicine: whose pre-trial..



Full Title: Pre-trial beliefs in complementary and alternative medicine: whose pre-trial belief should be considered?

Subjective probabilities play a significant role in the assessment of evidence: in other words, our background knowledge, or pre-trial beliefs, cannot be set aside when new evidence is being evaluated. Focusing on homeopathy, this paper investigates the nature of pre-trial beliefs in clinical trials. It asks whether pre-trial beliefs of the sort normally held only by those who are sympathetic to homeopathy can legitimately be disregarded in those trials. The paper addresses several surprisingly unsuccessful attempts to provide a satisfactory justification for ignoring the pre-trial beliefs of the homeopathic community. The ensuing diagnosis of the difficulties here emphasizes that the reason the arguments for choosing the pre-trial beliefs of the conventional community seem insufficient is not the arguments per se. It is rather that there is no cogent argument for choosing the conventional stance which would at the same time rationally persuade a member of the homeopathic community. The paper concludes that, once we understand that this is the predicament, there is no genuine reason to doubt the reasoning that leads us to reject the pre-trial beliefs of the homeopathic community.

Med Health Care Philos. 2010 Sep 6. Hansen K, Kappel K. Department of Public Health, Section for Health Services Research, Unit of Medical Philosophy and Clinical Theory, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, Building 5, P.O. Box 2099, 1014, Copenhagen K, Denmark, kirstenhansen100@gmail.com.

An overview of education and training of medical informatics in India.



BACKGROUND: Medical Informatics in India is still in its infancy. Although the Indian Association for Medical Informatics (IAMI) was founded in 1993, proposed by major healthcare delivery institutions, the absence of independent career options in medical informatics in India has resulted either in the exodus of the needed faculty members for supporting education in the field. However, this situation may have been changing in the past few years, but a large gap exists which needs to be filled up quickly. The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the present situation of research and training in medical informatics in India, and its implications for future development of the field. OBJECTIVES: To assess the current situation regarding the opportunities for research and education in Medical Informatics in India and related issues like availability of career options. METHODS: A survey questionnaire was sent by postal mail to well-known Indian institutions engaged in medical informatics training and research. In addition, key stakeholders working towards imparting education and awareness on the principles and practice of medical informatics were contacted to provide information about training and research in medical informatics in India. This was a purposive sampling based on prior knowledge. The responses were thematically analyzed. RESULTS: A total of six courses were identified in the survey. These were administered through face to face (F2F), e-learning and other modes of distance learning. In general, most of the students are graduates in medicine (allopathic, homeopathic, ayurvedic), allied sciences (nursing, physiotherapy) and medical administrators or graduates in engineering or library and information sciences. Most of them are also working, thus, the majority of the courses are for part-timers and act as on-job value addition. Most of the courses however do not directly train for jobs. Therefore, as most of the participants are already working somewhere, the question of placement due to the course may not be measurable directly. Since most of the students from India are already employed, by attending this course they gain further insights into health informatics that they want to pursue as a career.

Sarbadhikari SN, Gogia SB. Yearb Med Inform. 2010:106-8. Immediate Past President IAMI, 28/31 Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi 110060, India. Tel.: (L) +91 11 2585 2291, (M) +91 981 0126 883, E-mail gogia7@gmail.com, http://www.iami.org.in.

International cooperation in support of homeopathy and complementary medicine in ..



Full Title: International cooperation in support of homeopathy and complementary medicine in developing countries: the Tuscan experience.

Health is a fundamental human right which contributes to reducing poverty, and encourages social development, human safety, and economic growth. International initiatives have fallen far short of their goals. This paper describes collaboration between the region of Tuscany and Cuba, Western Sahara, Senegal and Serbia. These have introduced various forms of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, including homeopathy and Traditional Chinese Medicine into primary healthcare particularly obstetrics, and into veterinary medicine. Complementary and traditional medicine can represent a useful and sustainable resource in various fields of health care. Inclusion in the public health system must go hand in hand with scientific evaluation.

Homeopathy. 2010 Oct;99(4):278-83. Rossi E, Di Stefano M, Baccetti S, Firenzuoli F, Verdone M, Facchini M, Stambolovich V, Viña MP, Caldés MJ. Homeopathic Clinic, Campo di Marte Hospital, Lucca, Tuscany Network for Integrative Medicine, Italy. omeopatia@usl2.toscana.it

Effects of homeopathic medicines on mood of adults with histories of..



Full Title: Effects of homeopathic medicines on mood of adults with histories of coffee-related insomnia.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The purpose of this within-subjects feasibility study was to determine whether two different homeopathic remedies, Nux Vomica (NV) and Coffea Cruda (CC), exert effects on subjective mood ratings in healthy adults with a history of coffee-induced insomnia. The impact of individual personality traits, anxiety sensitivity or Type A cynical hostility, and homeopathic constitutional type (HTYPE-NV, HTYPE-CC), on remedy effects was examined to evaluate differential responsivity, in accord with clinical claims. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Young adults of both sexes (ages 18-31) with above-average scores on standardized personality scales for either cynical hostility or anxiety sensitivity, and a history of coffee-induced insomnia, participated in the month-long study. At-home polysomnographic recordings were obtained on successive pairs of nights once per week for a total of 8 recordings (nights 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, 16, 22, 23). Subjects (N = 59) received placebo pellets on night 8 (single-blind) and verum pellets in 30c doses of one of two homeopathic remedies, NV or CC, on night 22 (doubleblind). Subjects completed the Profile of Mood States Scales at bedtime. RESULTS: The remedies produced differential effects on anger and overall mood, with improved mood following CC administration. A similar trend for depression was observed. Anxiety sensitive subjects experienced less tension following CC, whereas hostile subjects receiving CC became more tense. The high HTYPE-CC receiving CC experienced less vigor. The high HTYPE-CC receiving NV experienced more vigor.

Forsch Komplementmed. 2010 Oct;17(5):250-7. Brooks AJ, Bell IR, Howerter A, Jackson N, Aickin M. Department of Psychology, the University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. brooksaj@email.arizona.edu

A grounded theory study of homeopathic practitioners' perceptions and experiences..



Full Title: A grounded theory study of homeopathic practitioners' perceptions and experiences of the homeopathic consultation.

Research into the homeopathic consultation has largely focused on patients' experiences, although the practitioner is a crucial component of the therapeutic context and may have an important part in optimizing health outcomes. Therefore the aim of this qualitative research was to gain an in-depth understanding of homeopathic practitioners' perceptions and experiences of the consultation. Medical and non-medical homeopaths were sampled from the registers of the Faculty and Society of Homeopaths. Two phases of data collection were employed. Phase 1 used in depth face-to-face interviews enabling the development of an initial model of the homeopathic consultation. Phase 2 involved observations of homeopathic consultations and practitioner reflective diaries in order to confirm, refute, or enlarge the model. Using the constant comparative method of grounded theory five main categories emerged, exploring the journey, finding the level, responding therapeutically, understanding self, and connecting, forming a model entitled "a theoretical model of a UK classical homeopathic consultation" which describes how homeopaths view and enact the consultation process. This study suggests that the process of identifying and prescribing the remedy is embedded in the consultation, highlighting the interconnectedness of the whole homeopathic consultation and aspects of the consultation that are unique and specific to homeopathy.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:957506. Eyles C, Leydon GM, Lewith GT, Brien S. Department of Primary Care, University of Southampton, Hampshire SD17 1BJ, UK.

Use of homeopathy in pediatric oncology in Germany.



Homeopathy is a frequently used complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment. We present results comparing responses of homeopathy users (HUs) and users of other forms of CAM (NHUs) in pediatric oncology (PO) in Germany. Differences between these two groups (usage, associated demographic characteristics, previous experience with CAM) are investigated. 186 (45.2%) of the 367 CAM users were exposed to homeopathy. The treatment duration amounted to a median of 601 days for HUs and 282 days for NHUs. Parents with p (127; 76.5%) also used homeopathy for their child's cancer. Nonmedical practitioners played a considerably greater role as source of information than did treating physician. In the majority HUs received their prescriptions from nonmedical practitioners (56%; 29.4% of NHUs). HUs communicate more frequently with their physicians about the CAM-use (77.7% versus 65.2%) and recommend CAM more often than NHUs (94% versus 85.6%). Homeopathy is the most frequently used CAM treatment in PO in Germany. HUs sustain treatment and therapies considerably longer than NHUs. Most families who had used homeopathy before their child was diagnosed with cancer also used homeopathy for the treatment of their child's cancer. Compared to other CAM treatments, patient satisfaction with homeopathy appears to be very high.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:867151. Längler A, Spix C, Edelhäuser F, Kameda G, Kaatsch P, Seifert G. Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Gemeinschaftskrankenhaus Herdecke, Gerhard-Kienle-Weg 4, 58313 Herdecke, Germany.

Unethical aspects of homeopathic dentistry.



In the last year there has been a great deal of public debate about homeopathy, the system of alternative medicine whose main principles are that like cures like and that potency increases relative to dilution. The House of Commons Select Committee on Science and Technology concluded in November 2009 that there is no evidence base for homeopathy, and agreed with some academic commentators that homeopathy should not be funded by the NHS. While homeopathic doctors and hospitals are quite commonplace, some might be surprised to learn that there are also many homeopathic dentists practising in the UK. This paper examines the statements made by several organisations on behalf of homeopathic dentistry and suggests that they are not entirely ethical and may be in breach of various professional guidelines.

Br Dent J. 2010 Nov 27;209(10):493-6. Shaw D. Dental School, Faculty of Medicine, University of Glasgow, 378 Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow, G2 3JZ. david.shaw@.glasgow.ac.uk

Adaptive coping strategies and attitudes toward health and healing in German..



Full Title: Adaptive coping strategies and attitudes toward health and healing in German homeopathy and acupuncture users.

CONTEXT: Although acupuncture and homeopathy both have a theoretical background that refers to immaterial forces difficult to verify, they are nevertheless used and accepted as effective treatments by many individuals. OBJECTIVE: We intended to investigate whether and how users of acupuncture and homeopathy differ with respect to sociodemographic data, adaptive coping strategies, and attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). DESIGN AND PATIENTS: In an anonymous questionnaire survey among 5,830 elderly German health insurants, we identified individuals who used CAM within the last five years. RESULTS: Acupuncture was used by 10% of the population, homeopathy by 7%, and both by 5%. More men than women used acupuncture, whereas homeopathy was used equally by women and men. Acupuncture users had a reduced physical health status compared to homeopathy users. In most cases, it was not a disappointment with conventional medicine that accounted for CAM usage. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that the best predictors of acupuncture and homeopathy usage were the conviction that CAM is more profound and expends more time, fear of the side effects of conventional medicine, and high scores in the measure of search for information and alternative help. Negative predictors were physical health, male gender, age, and trust in a scientific rationale of treatments. CONCLUSION: We found that usage of distinct CAM approaches might depend on particular psychosocial profiles, attitudes, and convictions. In contrast to homeopathy users, acupuncture users seemed to be much more pragmatic and referred more often to an expected scientific background of chosen treatment. Our findings fill a gap of knowledge that needs further attention.

Explore (NY). 2010 Jul-Aug;6(4):237-45. Büssing A, Ostermann T, Raak C, Matthiessen PF. Center for Integrative Medicine, University of Witten/Herdecke, Herdecke, Germany. arndt.buessing@uni-wh.de

How do homeopaths reason and make decisions? Integrating theory, practice, and..



Full Title: How do homeopaths reason and make decisions? Integrating theory, practice, and education.

BACKGROUND: Homeopathy is a major modality in complementary and alternative medicine. Significant tensions exist between homeopathic practice and education, evident in the diversity of practice styles and pedagogic models. Utilizing clinical reasoning knowledge in conventional medicine and allied health sciences, this article seeks to identify and critique existing research in this important area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search utilizing MEDLINE,(®) Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), and CINAHL(®) (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) was conducted. Key terms including clinical thinking, clinical reasoning, decision-making, homeopathy, and complementary medicine were utilized. A critical appraisal of the evidence was undertaken. RESULTS: Four (4) studies have examined homeopathic clinical reasoning. Two (2) studies sought to measure and quantify homeopathic reasoning. One (1) study proposed a reasoning model, based on pattern recognition, hypothetico-deductive reasoning, intuition, and remedy-matching (PHIR-M), resembling much that has been previously mapped in conventional medical reasoning research. The fourth closely investigated the meaning and use of intuition in homeopathic decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these four studies provide valuable insight into what is currently known about homeopathic clinical reasoning. However, despite the history and breadth of practice, little is known about homeopathic clinical reasoning and decision-making. Building on the research would require viewing clinical reasoning not only as a cognitive phenomenon but also as a situated and interactive one. Further research into homeopathic clinical reasoning is indicated.

J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Dec;16(12):1321-7. Levy D, Ajjawi R, Roberts C. Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. dlev1147@uni.sydney.edu.au

A review of three simple plant models and corresponding statistical tools for..



Full Title: A review of three simple plant models and corresponding statistical tools for basic research in homeopathy.

In this paper, we review three simple plant models (wheat seed germination, wheat seedling growth, and infected tobacco plants) that we set up during a series of experiments carried out from 1991 to 2009 in order to study the effects of homeopathic treatments. We will also describe the set of statistical tools applied in the different models. The homeopathic treatment used in our experiments was arsenic trioxide (As2O3) diluted in a decimal scale and dynamized. Since the most significant results were achieved with the 45th decimal potency, both for As2O3 (As 45x) and water (W 45x), we here report a brief summary of these results. The statistical analysis was performed by using parametric and nonparametric tests, and Poisson distribution had an essential role when dealing with germination experiments. Finally, we will describe some results related to the changes in variability, which seems to be one of the targets of homeopathic treatment effect.

ScientificWorldJournal. 2010 Dec 14;10:2330-47. Betti L, Trebbi G, Zurla M, Nani D, Peruzzi M, Brizzi M.

A critical review of the possible benefits associated with homeopathic medicine



OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the recent scientific research progress on homeopathy. METHODOLOGY: Homeopathy was evaluated in terms of its clinical research; in vitro research, and physical foundations. The Medline database was the main reference source for the present research, concerning data of approximately the last 10 years. Secondary references (not available in this database) were obtained by means of direct requests to authors listed in the primary references. RESULTS: Clinical studies and in vitro research indicate the inefficacy of homeopathy. Some few studies with positive results are questionable because of problems with the quality and lack of appropriate experimental controls in these studies. The most recent meta-analyses on the topic yielded negative results. One of the few previous meta-analyses with positive results had serious publication bias problems, and its results were later substantially reconsidered by the main authors. The sparse in vitro homeopathic research with positive results has not been replicated by independent researchers, had serious methodological flaws, or when replicated, did not confirm the initial positive results. A plausible mechanism for homeopathic action is still nonexistent, and its formulation, by now, seems highly unlikely. CONCLUSIONS: As a result of the recent scientific research on homeopathy, it can be concluded that ample evidence exists to show that the homeopathic therapy is not scientifically justifiable.

Rev Hosp Clin Fac Med Sao Paulo. 2003 Nov-Dec;58(6):324-31. Epub 2004 Jan 28. Almeida RM. Program of Biomedical

Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

The use of simplified constitutional indications for self-prescription of homeopathic medicine



OBJECTIVES: To develop simplified constitutional indications for homeopathic medicines so that parents of children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) could choose homeopathic medicines for their children more "accurately", and to subsequently evaluate if these choices match the prescriptions of trained homeopaths. DESIGN AND SETTING: To initially select the most commonly used homeopathic medicines for URTI, data from a survey of 1097 patients visiting 80 different Norwegian homeopaths were used. A simplified constitutional indication was then developed for the three homeopathic medicines most frequently prescribed for recurrent URTI and otitis media. The constitutional indications were developed by a group of five homeopaths and were then sent to 20 homeopaths for further evaluation. To evaluate the parents' choice of homeopathic medicines compared to the prescription by trained homeopaths, a group of 11 randomly selected homeopaths were asked to participate. They recruited parents of 70 child patients. RESULT: By using simplified constitutional indications for the three most commonly prescribed remedies, Calcarea carb, Pulsatilla and Sulphur, parents were able to choose the same homeopathic medicine as homeopaths' prescribed for 55% (95% CI 43-67) of children with URTI. There was excellent agreement between parents' choice and homeopaths' prescription for the three medicines (Kappa of 0.77, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Simplified constitutional indications can be used to improve the quality of the choice of homeopathic medicines purchased over the counter (OTC) for self-treatment.

Complement Ther Med. 2004 Jun-Sep;12(2-3):112-7. Steinsbekk A, Bentzen N, Fønnebø V, Lewith G. Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), MTFS, N-7489 Trondheim, Norway. aslak.steinsbekk@medisin.ntnu.no

The effects of a complex homeopathic medicine compared with acetaminophen...



Full Title: The effects of a complex homeopathic medicine compared with acetaminophen in the symptomatic treatment of acute febrile infections in children: an observational study

CONTEXT: Children frequently suffer infections accompanied by fever, which is commonly treated with acetaminophen (paracetamol), a use not devoid of risk. OBJECTIVE: The effect of a complex homeopathic medicine (Viburcol, Heel Belgium, Gent, Belgium) was compared with that of acetaminophen in children with infectious fever. DESIGN: Non-randomized observational study. SETTING: Thirty-eight Belgian centers practicing homeopathy and conventional medicine. PATIENTS: Children <12 years old. INTERVENTIONS: Viburcol (drops) or acetaminophen (pills, capsules, or liquid form) for a maximum of 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fever, cramps, distress, disturbed sleep, crying, and difficulties with eating or drinking. Symptoms were graded by the practitioner on a scale from 0 to 3. Severity of infection was evaluated on a scale from 0 to 4. Data were captured on body temperature, subjective impression of health status, time to first improvement of symptoms, and global evaluation of treatment effects. Tolerability and compliance were monitored. RESULTS: Both treatment groups improved during the treatment period. Body temperature was reduced by 1.7 degrees C +/- 0.7 degrees C with Viburcol and by 1.9 degrees C +/- 0.9 degrees C with acetaminophen; fever score (scale from 0 to 3) from 1.7 +/- 0.6 to 0.1 +/- 0.2 with Viburcol and from 1.9 +/- 0.7 to 0.2 +/- 0.5 with acetaminophen (all values mean +/-SD). The overall severity of infection (scale from 0 to 4) decreased from 2.0 +/- 0.5 to 0.0 +/- 0.2 with Viburcol and from 2.2 +/- 0.7 to 0.2 +/- 0.6 with acetaminophen. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups in time to symptomatic improvement. Viburcol was noninferior to acetaminophen on all variables evaluated. Both treatments were very well tolerated, but the Viburcol group had a significantly greater number of patients with the highest tolerability score. CONCLUSIONS: In this patient population, Viburcol was an effective alternative to acetaminophen treatment and significantly better tolerated.

Explore (NY). 2005 Jan;1(1):33-9. Derasse M, Klein P, Weiser M. d.s.h Statistical Services GmbH, Rohrbach, Germany.

An exploratory study of the contextual effect of homeopathic care



Full Title: An exploratory study of the contextual effect of homeopathic care. A randomised controlled trial of homeopathic care vs. self-prescribed homeopathic medicine in the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections in children.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the contextual effect of homeopathic consultation by investigating the effect of homeopathic care compared to self-treatment with self prescribed homeopathic medicine in the prevention of childhood upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). METHODS: Randomised parallel group trial with 208 children below the age of 10. The children were randomly assigned to receive either homeopathic care (HC: individual homeopathic consultations with any homeopathic medicine in any potency being prescribed) or one of three self-prescribed homeopathic medicines (SPH) in C-30 administered twice weekly, for 12 weeks. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in clinical effects between SPH and HC for primary outcomes. Mean URTI scores over 12 weeks were 39.0 in the HC group and 43.9 in the SPH group (p=0.782, difference -5.0 points (95% C.I.; -20.5 to +10.5)). The mean number of days where the parents rated their child as 'ill with URTI' was 10.0 in the HC group and 13.7 in the SPH group (p=0.394). There was a trend in favour of HC for other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In this innovative and exploratory study, there was no evidence for a clinically relevant effect of homeopathic care vs. a homeopathic medicine given by the child's parents and based on a pre-agreed homeopathic treatment protocol.

Prev Med. 2007 Oct;45(4):274-9; discussion 280-1. Epub 2007 Feb 9. Steinsbekk A, Lewith G, Fønnebø V, Bentzen N. Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), MTFS, N-7489 Trondheim, Norway. aslak.steinsbekk@ntnu.no

Individualized homeopathic treatment of dermatological complaints in a public outpatient clinic



This study sought to assess the effectiveness of individualized homeopathic treatment on dermatological complaints in a public outpatient clinic. METHODS: Children and adults spontaneously seeking for homeopathic treatment for dermatological complaints were prescribed single individualized remedies and followed up for a minimum of 3 months; assessment was clinical and recorded graphically. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients met the inclusion criteria. Outcomes were positive (59%); no effect (4%); drop-out (37%), from which 6% was due to homeopathic aggravation. No manifestations of suppression were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Outcome studies are useful to point out to the effectiveness of individualized homeopathic treatment in dermatological complaints. Outcomes suggest that actions focusing on pathological categories do not lead to homeopathic suppression.

Homeopathy. 2009 Jul;98(3):149-53. Waisse-Priven S, Jurj G, Lima Thomaz LC, Tierno SA, Filho WL, Sos A, de Souza MF. Associação Paulista de Homeopatia, Outpatient Clinic, São Paulo, Brazil.

Homeopathic Individualized Q-potencies versus Fluoxetine for Moderate to Severe Depression



Full Title: Homeopathic Individualized Q-potencies versus Fluoxetine for Moderate to Severe Depression: Double-blind, Randomized Non-inferiority Trial

Homeopathy is a complementary and integrative medicine used in depression, The aim of this study is to investigate the non-inferiority and tolerability of individualized homeopathic medicines [Quinquagintamillesmial (Q-potencies)] in acute depression, using fluoxetine as active control. Ninety-one outpatients with moderate to severe depression were assigned to receive an individualized homeopathic medicine or fluoxetine 20 mg day(-1) (up to 40 mg day(-1)) in a prospective, randomized, double-blind double-dummy 8-week, single-center trial. Primary efficacy measure was the analysis of the mean change in the Montgomery & Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) depression scores, using a non-inferiority test with margin of 1.45. Secondary efficacy outcomes were response and remission rates. Tolerability was assessed with the side effect rating scale of the Scandinavian Society of Psychopharmacology. Mean MADRS scores differences were not significant at the 4th (P = 0.654) and 8th weeks (P = 0.965) of treatment. Non-inferiority of homeopathy was indicated because the upper limit of the confidence interval (CI) for mean difference in MADRS change was less than the non-inferiority margin: mean differences (homeopathy-fluoxetine) were -3.04 (95% CI -6.95, 0.86) and -2.4 (95% CI -6.05, 0.77) at 4th and 8th week, respectively. There were no significant differences between the percentages of response or remission rates in both groups. Tolerability: there were no significant differences between the side effects rates, although a higher percentage of patients treated with fluoxetine reported troublesome side effects and there was a trend toward greater treatment interruption for adverse effects in the fluoxetine group. This study illustrates the feasibility of randomized controlled double-blind trials of homeopathy in depression and indicates the non-inferiority of individualized homeopathic Q-potencies as compared to fluoxetine in acute treatment of outpatients with moderate to severe depression.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Aug 17. Adler UC, Paiva NM, Cesar AT, Adler MS, Molina A, Padula AE, Calil HM. Department of Psychobiology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, R. Napoleão de Barros, 925 São Paulo, SP 04024-002, Brazil. hmcalil@psicobio.epm.br.

Homeopathic treatment in resistant livedoid vasculopathy: case report



This paper describes the successful outcome of homeopathic treatment in a case of resistant livedoid vasculopathy (LV). LV is a rare disease characterized by chronic recurrent and painful ulceration of the lower limbs, frequently associated to atrophie blanche (AB), probably due to procoagulant conditions. Most literature reports single or very few cases; response to treatment is difficult, even resistant. This patient suffered LV for 7 years before seeking homeopathic treatment; ulcers recurred frequently, at intervals less than 3 months, in spite of continual use of pentoxyfilline. Configuration of signs and symptoms strongly pointed out to the prescription of homeopathic remedy Sepia succus that promptly elicited significant improvement of LV and the patient's overall state (non suppressive treatment). Considerations are made on the value of single case reports and the reliability of prescriptions grounded on consistent signs and coherence among the manifold features of individual disease.

Homeopathy. 2009 Jul;98(3):165-8. Waisse-Priven S, Jurj G, Lima Thomaz LC, Tierno SA, Filho WL, Sos AB. Associação Paulista de Homeopatia, São Paulo, Brazil. silvia.priven@gmail.com

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