Tim Brunson DCH

Welcome to The International Hypnosis Research Institute Web site. Our intention is to support and promote the further worldwide integration of comprehensive evidence-based research and clinical hypnotherapy with mainstream mental health, medicine, and coaching. We do so by disseminating, supporting, and conducting research, providing professional level education, advocating increased level of practitioner competency, and supporting the viability and success of clinical practitioners. Although currently over 80% of our membership is comprised of mental health practitioners, we fully recognize the role, support, involvement, and needs of those in the medical and coaching fields. This site is not intended as a source of medical or psychological advice. -- Tim Brunson, PhD

Pediatric hypnosis: pre-, peri-, and post-anesthesia.



Objective:? Pediatric hypnosis has a useful role in pre-, peri-, and post-anesthesia to minimize anticipatory anxiety, and as adjunctive treatment to reduce and control pain. This article reviews the literature in the use of hypnosis in pediatric anesthesia to highlight its role and relevancy. Background:? Current research indicates there is an immediate and enduring impact, and long-term benefits of this child-centered intervention. Hypnosis can be included in presurgical consultations to establish cooperation and signals for increasing comfort and to address fears and provide suggestions for rapid recovery with changed expectations for the child's own benefit. Thus prepared, the child is in a heightened state of receptivity and statements and suggestions carry through to peri- and post-anesthesia, when hypnosis can help with extubation, reduce nausea, and ease recovery. Method:? The Magic Glove is one hypno-anesthesia technique that simultaneously addresses pain and anxiety. The process of hypnosis requires training and supervised practice. Conclusion: Patients in hypnosis treatment conditions have less anxiety and shorter hospital stays and experience less long-term pain and discomfort than do patients in control conditions. There appears little reason not to provide hypnosis as an adjunctive treatment for pediatric patients undergoing anesthesia.

Paediatr Anaesth. 2012 Jun;22(6):573-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9592.2012.03860.x. Kuttner L. Department of Pediatrics, BC Children's Hospital & University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Pediatric hypnosis: pre-, peri-, and post-anesthesia.



Objective:? Pediatric hypnosis has a useful role in pre-, peri-, and post-anesthesia to minimize anticipatory anxiety, and as adjunctive treatment to reduce and control pain. This article reviews the literature in the use of hypnosis in pediatric anesthesia to highlight its role and relevancy. Background:? Current research indicates there is an immediate and enduring impact, and long-term benefits of this child-centered intervention. Hypnosis can be included in presurgical consultations to establish cooperation and signals for increasing comfort and to address fears and provide suggestions for rapid recovery with changed expectations for the child's own benefit. Thus prepared, the child is in a heightened state of receptivity and statements and suggestions carry through to peri- and post-anesthesia, when hypnosis can help with extubation, reduce nausea, and ease recovery. Method:? The Magic Glove is one hypno-anesthesia technique that simultaneously addresses pain and anxiety. The process of hypnosis requires training and supervised practice. Conclusion: Patients in hypnosis treatment conditions have less anxiety and shorter hospital stays and experience less long-term pain and discomfort than do patients in control conditions. There appears little reason not to provide hypnosis as an adjunctive treatment for pediatric patients undergoing anesthesia.

Paediatr Anaesth. 2012 Jun;22(6):573-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9592.2012.03860.x. Kuttner L. Department of Pediatrics, BC Children's Hospital & University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Analgesia and sedation for children undergoing burn wound care.



Standard care of burn wounds consists of cleaning and debridement (removing devitalized tissue), followed by daily dressing changes. Children with burns undergo multiple, painful and anxiety-provoking procedures during wound care and rehabilitation. The goal of procedural sedation is safe and efficacious management of pain and emotional distress, requiring a careful and systematic approach. Achieving the best results needs understanding of the mechanisms of pain and the physiologic changes in burn patients, frequent evaluation and assessment of pain and anxiety, and administration of suitable pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies. Pharmacological therapies provide the backbone of analgesia and sedation for procedural pain management. Opioids provide excellent pain control, but they must be administered judiciously due to their side effects. Sedative drugs, such as benzodiazepines and propofol, provide excellent sedation, but they must not be used as a substitute for analgesic drugs. Ketamine is increasingly used for analgesia and sedation in children as a single agent or an adjuvant. Nonpharmacological therapies such as virtual reality, relaxation, cartoon viewing, music, massage and hypnosis are necessary components of procedural sedation and analgesia for children. These can be combined with pharmacological techniques and are used to limit the use of drugs (and hence side effects), as well as to improve patient participation and satisfaction. In this article, we review the pathophysiologic changes associated with major thermal injury in children, the options available for sedation and analgesia for wound care procedures in these children and our institutional guidelines for procedural sedation.

Expert Rev Neurother. 2010 Nov;10(11):1747-59. Bayat A, Ramaiah R, Bhananker SM. Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.

Effects of therapeutic suggestion in children undergoing general anesthesia



Full Title: Effects of therapeutic suggestion in children undergoing general anesthesia: a randomized controlled trial.

OBJECTIVES AND AIM: The goal of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effect of intraoperative positive therapeutic suggestion on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in children undergoing general anesthesia and otolaryngological surgery.

BACKGROUND: Because of the high incidence of PONV following otolaryngological surgery and its negative impact on recovery, researchers have examined various nonpharmacological interventions to target this phenomenon. To date, the effectiveness of therapeutic suggestion has not been studied in children.

METHODS: Participants were 67 children undergoing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and their mothers. Children received a standardized anesthetic procedure and were randomly assigned to one of three interventions administered under general anesthesia: therapeutic suggestion, story (prosody control), or standard operating room noise. Children, parents, and healthcare personnel were blinded to group assignment. Nausea and vomiting were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and for the first 3 days at home.

RESULTS: Results demonstrated a decrease in nausea severity across the first 3 days, F(2,49) = 10.37, P < 0.001, but no group differences in nausea severity in the PACU (F(2,49) = 0.87, P = 0.43) or at home (F(2,49) = 0.80, P = 0.46). There were also no group differences in vomiting episodes in the PACU (chi(2) (2) = 1.25, P > 0.05) or at home (F(2,49) = 1.59, P = 0.21).

CONCLUSIONS: In this blinded controlled trial, therapeutic suggestion delivered intraoperatively did not impact children's PONV. However, because this is the first study of this kind, replication may be needed.

Paediatr Anaesth. 2010 Jan;20(1):90-9. Fortier MA, Weinberg M, Vitulano LA, Chorney JM, Martin SR, Kain ZN. Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Care, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA. mfortier@choc.org

Non-pharmacological interventions for assisting the induction of anaesthesia in children



BACKGROUND: Induction of general anaesthesia can be distressing for children. Non-pharmacological methods for reducing anxiety and improving co-operation may avoid the adverse effects of preoperative sedation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of non-pharmacological interventions in assisting induction of anaesthesia in children by reducing their anxiety, distress or increasing their co-operation. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 1). We searched the following databases from inception to 14th December 2008: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS, Web of Science and EMBASE. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials of a non-pharmacological intervention implemented on the day of surgery or anaesthesia. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias in trials. MAIN RESULTS: We included 17 trials, all from developed countries, involving 1796 children, their parents or both. Eight trials assessed parental presence. None showed significant differences in anxiety or co-operation of children during induction, except for one where parental presence was significantly less effective than midazolam in reducing children's anxiety at induction. Six trials assessed interventions for children. Preparation with a computer package improved co-operation compared with parental presence (one trial). Children playing hand-held video games before induction were significantly less anxious than controls or premedicated children (one trial). Compared with controls, clown doctors reduced anxiety in children (modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS): mean difference (MD) 30.75 95% CI 15.14 to 46.36; one trial). In children undergoing hypnosis, there was a nonsignificant trend towards reduced anxiety during induction (mYPAS < 24: risk ratio (RR) 0.59 95% CI 0.33 to 1.04 - 39% versus 68%: one trial) compared with midazolam. A low sensory environment improved children's co-operation at induction (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.95; one trial) and no effect on children's anxiety was found for music therapy (one trial).Parental interventions were assessed in three trials. Children of parents having acupuncture compared with parental sham-acupuncture were less anxious during induction (mYPAS MD 17, 95% CI 3.49 to 30.51) and more children were co-operative (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.99). Parental anxiety was also significantly reduced in this trial. In two trials, a video viewed preoperatively did not show effects on child or parental outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review shows that the presence of parents during induction of general anaesthesia does not reduce their child's anxiety. Promising non-pharmacological interventions such as parental acupuncture; clown doctors; hypnotherapy; low sensory stimulation; and hand-held video games needs to be investigated further.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jul 8;(3):CD006447. Yip P, Middleton P, Cyna AM, Carlyle AV. Department of Paediatric Anaesthesia, Starship Children's Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.

Non-pharmacological nursing interventions for procedural pain relief in adults with burns



Adult burn patients experience pain during wound care despite pharmacological interventions. Additional nursing interventions are needed to improve pain management. A systematic review was undertaken in order to examine the implications of previous research for evidence based decisions concerning the use of non-pharmacological nursing interventions and for future research. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria and were discussed. The majority of the included studies concerned behavioural nursing interventions and focussed on promotion of psychological comfort. Although 17 studies showed that the intervention had a positive effect on pain outcomes and no adverse effects of the reviewed interventions were reported, the best available evidence was found for active hypnosis, rapid induction analgesia and distraction relaxation. However, in order to reduce methodological limitations, further research is needed before well-founded evidence based decisions for nursing practice can be made. Aspects that seem important for future research, like the type of the intervention, theoretical framework, manner of giving instruction and guidance, cost, outcomes, measurement instruments and data collection points are considered.

Burn Centre, Red Cross Hospital, Vondellaan 13, 1942 LE Beverwijk, The Netherlands; Association of Dutch Burn Centres, Beverwijk, The Netherlands.

Effects of hypnosis on diffuse noxious inhibitory controls.



The neurophysiological mechanisms of hypnotic analgesia are still under debate. It is known that pain occurring in one part of the body (counterstimulation) decreases pain in the rest of the body by activating the diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNICs). The aim of this study was to explore the effects of hypnosis on both pain perception and heterotopic nociceptive stimulation. The A forms of both the Harward Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale were administered to 50 healthy students. Twenty subjects were selected and assigned to two groups: group A, consisting of 10 subjects with high hypnotic susceptibility; and group B, consisting of 10 subjects with low hypnotic susceptibility. The subjects were then randomly assigned first to either a control session or a session of hypnotic analgesia. The nociceptive flexion reflex (RIII) was recorded from the biceps femoris muscle in response to stimulation of the sural nerve. The subjective pain threshold, the RIII reflex threshold, and the mean area with suprathreshold stimulation were determined. Heterotopic nociceptive stimulation was investigated by the cold-pressor test (CPT). During and immediately after the CPT, the subjective pain threshold, pain tolerance, and mean RIII area were determined again. The same examinations were repeated during hypnosis. Hypnosis significantly reduced the subjective pain perception and the nociceptive flexion reflex. It also increased pain tolerance and reduced pain perception and the nociceptive reflex during the CPT. These effects were found only in highly susceptible subjects. However, the DNIC's activity was less evident during hypnosis than during the CPT effects without hypnosis. Both hypnosis and DNICs were able to modify the perception of pain. It seems likely that DNICs and hypnosis use the same descending inhibitory pathways for the control of pain. The susceptibility of the subject is a critical factor in hypnotically induced analgesia.

Department of Neurological Sciences, University Center for Adaptive Disorders and Headache, IRCCS, C. Mondino Foundation, University of Pavia, Via Palestro 3, 27100, Pavia, Italy. gsandrin@unipv.it

Physiol Behav. 2000 May;69(3):295-300

Helping Children Relax During Magnetic Resonance Imaging



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Helping children relax during magnetic resonance imaging.

In the Sept/Oct, 1997 issue of The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing [Vol. 22(5), pp 237-241], Gail Smart, a clinical pediatric nurse specialist at Children's Hospital of Denver, reports on her pilot study on the effects of guided imagery on kids during MRI procedures. She randomly assigned 20 kids, ages 4-8, to either a guided imagery group or a control group.

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Correlation and agreement between bispectral index and state entropy of the electroencephalogram



Bispectral index (BIS) and state entropy (SE) monitor hypnosis. We evaluated the correlation and the agreement between those parameters during propofol anaesthesia and laryngoscopy with and without muscle relaxation. METHODS: A total of 25 patients were anaesthetized with propofol. At steady state (SS: BIS 40-50), they randomly received rocuronium (R) or saline (S); 3 min thereafter, a 20 s laryngoscopy was performed. Correlation (regression analysis) and agreement (Bland-Altman analysis) were evaluated before induction (baseline), at loss of eyelash reflex (LER), at SS and during the first 3 min after laryngoscopy (L). RESULTS: The correlation coefficient r (95% CI), the mean difference (MD) (95% CI), and the limits of agreement [lower-upper limits of 95% CI of MD (sd 1.96)] between BIS and SE were as follows. Overall recordings: 0.87 (0.83 to 0.90), 2.5 (1.2 to 3.0), and [-19.5 to 24.6]; Baseline: 0.45 (0.06 to 0.72), 7.6 (6.0 to 9.2), and [-2.7 to 17.9]; LER: 0.74 (0.47 to 0.88), 8.3 (3.5 to 13.2), and [-22.6 to 39.3]; SS, all patients: 0.41 (0.14 to 0.63), 2.0 (-0.5 to 4.6), and [-19.0 to 23.3]; SS, Group S: 0.36 (-0.07 to 0.68), 1.9 (-2.5 to 6.3), and [-25.0 to 28.8]; SS, Group R: 0.63 (0.32 to 0.82), 0.2 (-2.0 to 2.3), and [-14.0 to 14.4]; L, all patients: 0.49 (0.32 to 0.63), 0.7 (-1.6 to 3.0), and [-25.6 to 27.1]; L, Group S: 0.41 (0.13 to 0.63), 2.3 (-2.4 to 7.1), and [-36.7 to 41.3]; L, Group R: 0.72 (0.56 to 0.83), -0.6 (-2.2 to 1.0), and [-14.3 to 13.1]. The correlation was good except for SS in Group S. The MD was significantly different from 0 for overall recordings, during baseline and LER, but not for the other conditions. The agreement was poor except for baseline, and SS and L in Group R. CONCLUSIONS: BIS and SE are globally well correlated. In contrast, agreement is poor as differences of more than 20 units are frequently observed, except for awake and paralysed patients.

University Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, CHR de la Citadelle Liege, Belgium. vincent.bonhomme@chu.ulg.ac.be

Protein crystallography under xenon and nitrous oxide pressure: Comparison with in vivo pharmacology



In contrast with most inhalational anesthetics, the anesthetic gases xenon (Xe) and nitrous oxide (N2O) act by blocking the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Using X-ray crystallography, we examined the binding characteristics of these two gases on two soluble proteins as structural models: urate oxidase, which is a prototype of a variety of intracellular globular proteins, and annexin V which possesses structural and functional characteristics that allow it to be considered as a prototype for the NMDA receptor. The structure of these proteins complexed with Xe and N2O were determined. One N2O molecule or one Xe atom binds to the same main site in both proteins. A second subsite is observed for N2O in each case. The gas binding sites are always hydrophobic flexible gas cavities buried within the monomer. Comparison of the effects of Xe and N2O on urate oxidase and annexin V reveals an interesting relationship with the in vivo pharmacological effects of these gases, the ratio of the gas binding sites volume expansion and the ratio of the narcotic potency being similar. Given these data, we propose that alterations of cytosolic globular protein functions by general anesthetics would be responsible for the early stages of anesthesia such as amnesia and hypnosis, while additional alterations of ion-channel membrane receptor functions are required for deeper effects that progress to "surgical" anesthesia.

CNRS UMR 6185, Centre Cyceron.

Focused hypnotic analgesia: local and remote effects



Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, The Hebrew University-Hadassah, Jerusalem, Israel. sharav@cc.huji.ac.il

Suggestion for hypnotic analgesia aimed at a specific body area is termed "focused hypnotic analgesia". It is not clear, however, whether this analgesia is limited to a specific body location or spread all over the body. Focused hypnotic analgesia was studied, in response to ascending electrical stimuli, when analgesia and stimulation were applied to the same area (local), and when analgesia was applied to one location and stimulation was delivered to a different area (remote). The face or leg served alternately as the local or remote areas, and the effect was tested in 12 high-hypnotizable (HH) and 13 low-hypnotizable (LH) subjects. Hypnotic analgesia in the local site produced a significant pain reduction compared to the remote site in HH subjects (P<0.0001) but not in LH subjects (P=0.68). As stimuli increased in intensity the reduction in pain as a result of hypnosis was larger both in HH and LH subjects (P<0.0001). Nevertheless, significant analgesia occurred in the 3 highest intensities in the local and remote location of HH subjects, but only in 2 highest intensities in the local and 1 in the remote of LH subjects. We conclude that in HH subjects focused hypnotic analgesia is mostly confined to the area aimed at, but some spread of analgesia to remote areas cannot be dismissed all together. Alternatively, this "spread" of analgesia could be due to a placebo effect in the remote area. Focused hypnotic analgesia requires increased attention to the body area aimed at, unlike analgesia achieved by distraction of attention.

Satisfaction with, and the beneficial side effects of, hypnotic analgesia



Case study research suggests that hypnosis treatment may provide benefits that are not necessarily the target of specific suggestions. To better understand satisfaction with and the beneficial "side effects" of hypnosis treatment, questions inquiring about treatment satisfaction and treatment benefits were administered to a group of 30 patients with chronic pain who had participated in a case series of hypnotic analgesia treatment. The results confirmed the authors' clinical experience and showed that most participants reported satisfaction with hypnosis treatment even when the targeted symptom (in this case, pain intensity) did not decrease substantially. Study participants also reported a variety of both symptom-related and nonsymptom-related benefits from hypnosis treatment, including decreased pain, increased perceived control over pain, increased sense of relaxation and well-being, and decreased perceived stress, although no single benefit was noted by a majority of participants.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-6490, USA. mjensen@u.washington.edu

Anaesthetic drugs: linking molecular actions to clinical effects



The use of general anaesthetics has facilitated great advantages in surgery within the last 150 years. General anaesthesia is composed of several components including analgesia, amnesia, hypnosis and immobility. To achieve these components, general anaesthetics have to act via multiple molecular targets at different anatomical sites in the central nervous system. Much of our current understanding of how anaesthetics work has been obtained within the last few years on the basis of genetic approaches, in particular knock-out or knock-in mice. Anaesthetic drugs can be grouped into volatile and intravenous anaesthetics according to their route of administration. Common volatile anaesthetics induce immobility via molecular targets in the spinal cord, including glycine receptors, GABA(A) receptors, glutamate receptors, and TREK-1 potassium channels. In contrast, intravenous anaesthetics cause immobility almost exclusively via GABA(A) receptors harbouring beta3 subunits. Hypnosis is predominantly mediated by beta3-subunit containing GABA(A) receptors in the brain, whereas beta2 subunit containing receptors, which make up more than 50% of all GABA(A) receptors in the central nervous system, mediate sedation. At clinically relevant concentrations, ketamine and nitrous oxide block NMDA receptors. Unlike all other anaesthetics in clinical use they produce analgesia. Not only desired actions of anaesthetics, but also undesired side effects are linked to certain receptors. Respiratory depression involves beta3 containing GABA(A) receptors whereas hypothermia is largely mediated by GABA(A) receptors containing beta2 subunits. These recent insights into the clinically desired and undesired actions of anaesthetic agents provide new avenues for the design of drugs with an improved side-effect profile. Such agents would be especially beneficial for the treatment of newborn children, elderly patients and patients undergoing ambulatory surgery.

Department of Anesthesiology, Experimental Anesthesiology Section, University of Tuebingen, Schaffhausenstr. 113, D-72072 Tuebingen, Germany. christian.grasshoff@uni-tuebingen.de

Hypnotic Depth During Hypnosis for Anaesthesia



To study the effects of S-ketamine on the EEG and to investigate whether spectral entropy of the EEG can be used to assess the depth of hypnosis during S-ketamine anesthesia. METHODS: The effects of sub-anesthetic (159 (21); mean (SD) ng/ml) and anesthetic (1,959 (442) ng/ml) serum concentrations of S-ketamine on state entropy (SE), response entropy (RE) and classical EEG spectral power variables (recorded using the Entropy Module, GE Healthcare, Helsinki, Finland) were studied in 8 healthy males. These EEG data were compared with EEG recordings from 6 matching subjects anesthetized with propofol. RESULTS: The entropy values decreased from the baseline SE 85 (3) and RE 96 (3) to SE 55 (18) and RE 72 (17) during S-ketamine anesthesia but both inter- and intra-individual variation of entropy indices was wide and their specificity to indicate unconsciousness was poor. Propofol induced more pronounced increase in delta power (P<0.02) than S-ketamine, whereas anesthetic S-ketamine induced more high frequency EEG activity in the gamma band (P<0.001). Relative power of 20-70 Hz EEG activity was associated with high SE (P=0.02) and RE (P=0.03) values during S-ketamine anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: These differences in low and high frequency EEG power bands probably explain why entropy monitor, while adequate for propofol, is not suitable for assessing the depth of S-ketamine anesthesia. SIGNIFICANCE: The entropy monitor is not adequate for monitoring S-ketamine-induced hypnosis.

Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, P.O. Box 52, FIN-20521 Turku, Finland. anu.maksimow@utu.fi

Effect site concentrations of propofol producing hypnosis in children and adults



No study has determined the concentration of propofol producing a degree of hypnosis compatible with anaesthesia in children. As a result, concentrations determined in adults are recommended for children. As this can result in an inadequate depth of anaesthesia, we determined the predicted effect site concentration (C(e)) of propofol necessary to obtain a bispectral index (BIS) of 50 in 50% (EC(e50)) of children and adults. METHODS: Twenty adults (aged 33-44 years) and 20 children (aged 3-11 years) undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia were studied. All were monitored with a BIS monitor, and a target controlled infusion of propofol aiming for a constant C(e) value was started. After 10 min, patients were evaluated using a sedation scale, and the last 5 min was used to determine the mean BIS for this C(e) value. The C(e) value of propofol was defined using the up-and-down method of Dixon and Massey. The first patient in each group received C(e)= 6 microg/ml; thereafter, it was modified in 0.5 microg/ml decrements/increments with positive or negative responses, respectively. A positive response was BIS < 50 and a negative response was BIS > or = 50. The EC(e50) value was compared using unpaired Student's t-test. The prediction probability (P(K)) was used to study the association between BIS and the sedation score. RESULTS: The mean EC(e50) (95% confidence interval) values were 3.75 microg/ml (2.97-4.75 microg/ml) in adults and 3.65 microg/ml (3.36-3.96 microg/ml) in children (not significant). All patients with BIS < 50 were unarousable with tactile stimulation. The P(K) value was 0.99 in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The predicted C(e) value of propofol resulting in BIS = 50 was similar in adults and children aged 3-11 years. The predicted C(e) value of propofol producing hypnosis in adults also seems to be useful in this paediatric population.

Departamento de Anestesiologia, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Marcoleta 367, Santiago, Chile. hmunoz@med.puc.cl

BIS monitor findings during self-hypnosis



We describe BIS values for a patient undergoing breast surgery under self-hypnosis in order to access the value of global surface EEG measures occurring during this process. METHODS: Following verbal consent, a BIS(TM) monitor (Aspect Medical, Newton MA) was placed and values measured while the patient performed self-hypnosis for a simple mastectomy and sentinel node biopsy. RESULTS: Thirty-nine minutes after incision the BIS value decreased transiently to 72 followed by several other transient decreases, the lowest of which was 59. Values remained at approximately 90 throughout most of the operative period. The BIS value returned to baseline after completion of the operation. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that hypnosis is a dynamic cerebral process incorporating many changes within brain activation centers and one distinct from dissociative patterns seen under anesthesia. Current algorithms employed by the BIS(TM) monitor add little to the management of patients utilizing hypnosis for analgesia.

Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. burkle.christopher@mayo.edu

Sedation in the critically ill patient.



The goal of critical care medicine is to support organ function and maintain homeostasis until healing can occur. Sedation and analgesia may blunt the physiologic and psychologic sequelae of intensive care unit stress, and support homeostasis. Although a wide variety of agents have been used empirically, the recognition of analgesia, amnesia, and hypnosis as discrete elements comprising the sedated state has facilitated an individualized approach to therapy. Because intensive care unit patients are a highly heterogeneous population with varying levels of end-organ compromise, the development of specific, easily titratable, parenteral agents has made intensive care unit sedation safer. A trend toward refining dosage regimens in order to minimize the total dose of drug administered and to reduce the occurrence of residual sedation is driven by utilization and cost concerns. The capability for simple bedside electrophysiologic monitoring of the level of sedation is expected to improve the ability to provide optimal therapy.

Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

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