Tim Brunson DCH

Welcome to The International Hypnosis Research Institute Web site. Our intention is to support and promote the further worldwide integration of comprehensive evidence-based research and clinical hypnotherapy with mainstream mental health, medicine, and coaching. We do so by disseminating, supporting, and conducting research, providing professional level education, advocating increased level of practitioner competency, and supporting the viability and success of clinical practitioners. Although currently over 80% of our membership is comprised of mental health practitioners, we fully recognize the role, support, involvement, and needs of those in the medical and coaching fields. This site is not intended as a source of medical or psychological advice. -- Tim Brunson, PhD

Epidemiology of complementary alternative medicine for asthma and allergy in Europe and Germany

OBJECTIVE: To describe and discuss the epidemiologic characteristics and determinants of the use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM) from a European, particularly German, perspective. DATA SOURCES: An unrestricted literature search using the keywords alternative, allergy, complementary, epidemiology, and medicine was performed in PubMed (National Library of Medicine). In addition, background literature and the opinion of the author contributed to the article. STUDY SELECTION: European studies that provided data on the epidemiology of the use of CAM were selected and discussed in more detail. RESULTS: Approximately 30% of patients with allergies report experiences with CAM in Europe. In selected in-patient populations, the prevalence reaches 50%. Users of CAM tend to be younger women with a higher educational background. Furthermore, users and nonusers differ in terms of psychomedical characteristics, such as health locus of control or health-related quality of life. Although a larger number of different CAM modalities are provided, only a few techniques account for the majority of use (eg, acupuncture, homeopathy, herbalism, bioresonance, autologous blood injection). The use of CAM is associated with considerable costs, reaching an estimated amount of 0.9 billion Euro (approximately 1 billion US dollars) in Germany. CONCLUSIONS: CAM is widely used by the public to treat allergies. National peculiarities concerning the individual methods, providers, or reimbursement must be considered. The economic and public health implications should be discussed in context with the limited evidence of efficacy.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004 Aug;93(2 Suppl 1):S5-10. Schäfer T. Institute of Social Medicine, Medical University of Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany. torsten.schaefer@sozmed.mu-luebeck.de

Use of complementary and alternative medicine by food-allergic patients

BACKGROUND: Interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing. Use of CAM in food-allergic patients has not previously been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of CAM use, the types of CAM modalities used, and opinions about CAM in food-allergic patients. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to attendees at a patient conference in 2002 and to patients at pediatric food allergy clinics in 2005. RESULTS: Surveys were completed by 380 families. Respondents were mainly white, parents of children with multiple food allergies, and from the tri-state (New York, New Jersey, Connecticut) area. Diagnostic modalities considered unproven or disproven (such as serum IgG4, electrodermal skin testing, and kinesiology) were used by 22% of respondents; CAM therapies were used by 18%. Participants used several types of CAM practitioners, the most common being chiropractors, homeopaths, and acupuncturists. Only 49% of patients using CAM disclosed this to their physicians. Efficacy ratings for CAM were poor. Regarding participants' opinions, an herbal therapy of equal efficacy, safety, and cost was preferred to a pharmaceutical drug (37% vs 12%; P = .001), but most participants (51%) had no preference or were unsure. CONCLUSION: Unproven or disproven diagnostic methods and CAM treatments were used by approximately 1 in 5 respondents. Those using CAM noted poor efficacy, but if given a choice, many would prefer herbal therapies to pharmaceutical drugs. Education regarding reliable testing for food allergy and further research on CAM therapies are warranted.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006 Sep;97(3):365-9. Ko J, Lee JI, Muñoz-Furlong A, Li XM, Sicherer SH. Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA. Jimmy.Ko@mssm.edu

Complementary and alternative medicine in pediatric allergic disorders

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allergic disorders represent a serious public health problem in children. The chronic nature of these diseases and the fear of known side effects of synthetic drugs influence many families to seek complementary and alternative medicine. This review focuses on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal products and acupuncture for treating pediatric allergies. RECENT FINDINGS: Given the general safety profile and reputed efficacy, TCM are well received by the general population. However, compared with the long human history and popularity of the use of TCM, research into its efficacy and safety is still in its infancy. In the last 2-3 years, there have been more controlled studies of TCM for allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis. Several publications including ours indicate that some TCM herbal formulas are well tolerated and produce some level of efficacy. Some herbal formulas also showed beneficial immunomodualtory effects. Several preclinical studies demonstrated that the food allergy herbal formula-2 was effective in protecting against peanut anaphylaxis in animal models. Two TCM products have entered clinical trials in the United States for treating asthma and food allergy, respectively. Both of these trials include children. SUMMARY: Recent studies indicate that TCM therapy including herbal medicines and acupuncture for allergic disorders in children is well tolerated. There are also promising clinical and objective improvements. More controlled clinical studies are encouraged.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Apr;9(2):161-7. Li XM. Department of Pediatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA. xiu-min.li@mssm.edu

Use of alternative medicine in Israeli chronic rhinosinusitis patients

OBJECTIVE: The worldwide interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been established in multiple surveys. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is often an unremitting disease with frequent troubling relapses, and despite wide use of endoscopic sinus surgery, conventional medicine may have a smaller contribution than expected. Because of prevalent use of CAM among patients, it is important that physicians acquire basic knowledge of this subject. We studied the prevalence of CAM use among CRS patients in Israel. DESIGN: Use of CAM was evaluated in a cohort of consecutive adult patients with CRS. SETTING: An outpatient clinic in a tertiary medical centre. METHODS: Patients were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire containing demographic data and data pertaining to allergy, traditional medical and surgical treatment use of CAM, and modalities used. RESULTS: Ninety patients were included. Nineteen of them (21%) reported CAM use. This included herbal medicine, vitamins, homeopathy, acupuncture, massage, reflexology, yoga, and chiropractics. There was a tendency, although not statistically significant, for patients with allergy and a history of sinus surgery to use CAM. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CAM use among patients with CRS in Israel is high and may correlate with the presence of allergies and a history of sinus surgery.

J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009 Aug;38(4):517-20. Yakirevitch A, Bedrin L, Migirov L, Wolf M, Talmi YP. Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, the Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel. arkadiyak@gmail.com

Differences Between the Physiologic and Psychologic Effects of Aromatherapy Body Treatment.

Abstract Background: The wide use of herbal plants and essential oils for the prevention and treatment of diseases dates back to ancient times. However, the scientific basis for the beneficial effects of such plants and oils has not been precisely clarified. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aromatherapy body treatment on healthy subjects. Design: We compared the physiologic and psychologic effects of aromatherapy body treatment (E), massage treatment with carrier oil alone (C), and rest in healthy adults. Subjects: Seven (7) female and 6 male volunteers participated as subjects. Interventions: Each subject underwent 3 trials, in which the Advanced Trail Making Test (ATMT) was given as a stress-inducing task before and after 1 of 3 treatments. Outcome measures: The State Anxiety Inventory (SAI), the Visual Analog Scale, and the Face Scale were used to assess anxiety, feelings, and mood, respectively. Results: After the treatments, the SAI score and the feelings of fatigue were decreased, the positive and comfortable feelings were increased, and mood improved significantly in C and E. Furthermore, significant declines in the feelings of mental and total fatigue were maintained even after the second ATMT in E. On the other hand, the cortisol concentration in the saliva did not show significant changes in any of the trials. Secretory immunoglobulin A levels in the saliva increased significantly after all treatments. Conclusions: We conclude that massage treatments, irrespective of the presence of essential oils, are more advantageous than rest in terms of psychologic or subjective evaluations but not in terms of physiologic or objective evaluations. Furthermore, as compared to massage alone, the aromatherapy body treatment provides a stronger and continuous relief from fatigue, especially fatigue of mental origin.

Takeda H, Tsujita J, Kaya M, Takemura M, Oku Y. Department of Physiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo, Japan. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jul 20.

Measures in chiropractic research: choosing patient-based outcome assessments.

OBJECTIVE: Outcome assessment normally used in research can support the therapeutic process by tracking patient symptoms and function and offering a common language to clinicians and researchers. This study's objectives were to (1) identify patient-based outcomes assessments used in published chiropractic studies, (2) describe a framework for identifying appropriate sets of measures, and (3) address the challenges associated with these measures relevant to chiropractic. METHODS: This literature review identified and evaluated the most commonly used to outcome measures in chiropractic research. Instruments were evaluated in terms of feasibility, practicality, economy, reliability, validity, and responsiveness to clinical change. A search of PubMed and Index to Chiropractic Literature (from inception to June 2006) was performed. RESULTS: A total of 1166 citations were identified. Of these, 629 were selected as relevant. The most common patient-based outcomes assessments instruments identified were the Oswestry Pain/Disability Index, Visual Analog Scale, and Short Form 36. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of outcome measures is consistent with current national initiatives to enhance health care quality through performance measurement and can also be used to further the field of chiropractic health care research. Outcome measures are both a research tool and a means by which providers can consistently measure health care quality. Based upon this review, there is a wide range of outcome measures available for use in chiropractic care. Those most commonly cited in the literature are the numeric rating scale, Visual Analog Scale, Oswestry Pain/Disability Index, Roland-Morris Low Back Pain and Disability Questionnaire, and Short Form 36.

Khorsan R, Coulter ID, Hawk C, Choate CG. Integrative Medicine and Military Medical Research, Samueli Institute, Corona del Mar, CA 92625, USA. rkhorsan@siib.org J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2008 Jun;31(5):355-75.

Cerebral mechanisms of hypnosis

The neural mechanisms underlying hypnosis and especially the modulation of pain perception by hypnosis remain obscure. Using PET we first described the distribution of regional cerebral blood flow during the hypnotic state. Hypnosis relied on revivification of pleasant autobiographical memories and was compared to imaging autobiographical material in <>.


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