Tourette syndrome (TS) is a disorder characterised by multiple motor and vocal tics and is frequently associated with behavioural problems. Tics are known to be affected by internal factors such as inner tension and external factors such as the surrounding environment. A number of behavioural treatments have been suggested to treat the symptoms of TS, in addition to pharmacotherapy and surgery for the most severe cases. This review compiled all the studies investigating behavioural therapies for TS, briefly describing each technique and assessing the evidence in order to determine which of these appear to be effective. Different behavioural therapies that were used included habit reversal training (HRT), massed negative practice, supportive psychotherapy, exposure with response prevention, self-monitoring, cognitive-behavioural therapy, relaxation therapy, assertiveness training, contingency management, ahan controls). Statistically significant differences in RMU time between groups were seen post intervention (-7% at T1 and +15% at T2 for the intervention group). Fifty-five percent of the intervention group was willing to continue using the mouse. It appears feasible to perform an RCT for this type of intervention in a workplace setting. Further study including more participants is suggested. Practitioner Summary: The study findings support the feasibility of conducting randomised control trials in office settings to evaluate ergonomics interventions. The intervention resulted in reduced pain and discomfort in the shoulder. The intervention could be a relevant tool in the reduction of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder. Further research will better explain the study's preliminary findings.
Behav Neurol. 2012 Nov 27. Frank M, Cavanna AE. The Michael Trimble Neuropsychiatry Research Group, Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Birmingham and BSMHFT, Birmingham, UK College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.